Archive for the ‘History’ Category


December 14, 2012 Leave a comment


Ondorengo blog honek Gorbeiako Parke Natural magiko eta liluragarriari buruzko informazio zabala eskaintzen du. Paradisu eder honek hainbat ekintza egiteko aukera ematen du eta gure helburua aukera horiek ondo kudeatzea eta jendea erakartzea da parkeari buruzko informazioa emanez.

Blog honetan gure estrategia garatzeko erreferentzia nagusia “Gorbeia Central Park” webgune edo blog ezaguna  izan da. Horretaz gain, esan beharra daukagu blog hau aurrera ateratzeko “Arratia Suzien” taldearen eta “Arratiako Mankomunitatearen” laguntza izan dugula.

Gorbeiako Parke Naturala Bizkaia eta Araba artean kokatzen da. Parke eder hau, Euskadiko parke natural handiena da 26.050 hektarea dituelarik eta bertako gailurrik garaiena Gorbeia mendia dugu 1481m-rekin. Aldamin 1375m eta Lekanda 1303m-rekin, dira beste gailur garrantzitsu batzuk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Bizkaiko txoko maitagarri hau 1994.  urtean izendatu zuten parke natural bezala ez soilik bere balio naturalarengatik baita bere balio kulturalarengatik bertako herri txikiak kulturaren ondare dira, tradizio eta pentsaera zaharrak ederki mantendu dituzten herritarrez beteak: Bizkaia aldean kokatzen diren herriak Areatza, Zeanuri, Zeberio eta Orozko dira Araban aldiz Zigoitia, Zuia eta Urkabustaiz.

Parke natural honek balore sentimental eta ideologiko handia izateaz aparte aukera bikainak eskaintzen ditu, kirol ezberdinak egiteko aukera adibidez: trekking, eskalada, mountain-bike, espedeologia… herrietako janleku bikainak dastatzeko aukera; Gorostondo, Arratiano, , Axpe Goikoa… uda giroan herrietako jai giroan murgiltzeko aukera, animaliez gozatzeko aukera ….. familiarekin eguna pasatzeko aukera …. .

Lo egiteko leku anitz dituzu edozein herritan baita ingurukoetan ere; Arantza (Igorren),  Hotel Balneario Hesperia… (Areatzan) Hotel Etxegana ( Zeanuri)  eta horretaz gain herri hauek bisitatzeko aukera ederra, herri txikiak izan arren erakargarriak baitira.

Blog honek bere berriak eta ekintza ezberdinak Twitter eta Facebook bezalako sare sozialetan partekatuko ditu jendeak gure berri izan dezan.



Anon, GORBEIA SUZIEN. Available at:


Anon, GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK. Available at:

New Zealand history

December 13, 2012 Leave a comment

There are many historical aconteciments in New Zealand which are the most important happenings for the development of the Australian country.

NEW-ZEALAND Read more…

Categories: History

Free topic post: “Trikitixa, a closer look”

December 13, 2012 Leave a comment

I sincerely believe that music grants a deep sense of fullfillment, one that improves life to limitless extents. This, though, is no wonder, since I am a musician myself -it would be rather counter-productive to go against the guild, dont you think?-. My most cherished instrument -of the few I own- is called “trikitixa”, a diathonic accordion typicial of the basque country, whose characteristic sound you must have surely heard. My intention with this post is to enlighten the reader with some deeper understanding of the instrument itself, the way it works, and some personal impressions.

Let us start with some history: The trikitixa is actually a variation of the diathonic button accordion, which has its roots in italy (incidentally, the main manufacturers are italian). Its “Diathonic” nature makes each an incredibly complicated product of luthiery, and thus they are quite costly, but, on the ther hand, if properly taken care of, they can outlast their owners. Because of this, it is not infrequent for the most veteran (and succesful) players to sport real vintages, antique models handed down from generation to generation in their families.

trikitixa models from 1942

Here are some of the best trikitilaris of the past century, with models of the time.
Image taken from: (accessed: 19.20 13/12/2012)

The diathonic accordion was introduced in the late 19th century by french and italian sailors and/or railway workers, in a time its use was extending all over europe. The trikitixa was developed as the originals suffered some small modifications in tone and bass-notes (and later on the 20th century, also by adding 4 altered notes). It consists of two keyboards and a bellow; the one for the right hand bears individual sounds and the one in the left, chords in different octaves. The sounds are made when the air (either stored in the bellow or from the outside) is made to go through dual windpipes each containing a thin metal sheet, which are sealed in one side so as to isolate notes. These windpipes are covered by a plug connected to its corresponding button through a small lever, thus allowing to play one note at a time, or any combination wanted (so long as the harmonics allow it).

Description of each section with complementary images here.

Traditionally, it has been assotiated with folk music from the basque country, being present in most of the traditional song types (specially “fandango”, “arin-arin”, and “kopla”), and frequently played accompanied by a “pandero” (a hand-percutted frame-drum), though from the late seventies onwards it has been increasingly paired with unorthodox instruments so as to include it in many other genres (pop, rock, jazz, and so on). Here are some examples of the “old” and the “modern” songs:

“Odolaren boza” – Traditional march.

“Kalanbreak” – Pop-rock song by Gozategi.

Personally, I think that it is a complicate instrument to play. It is an acquired taste, one that requires constant practice lest the player get rusty and the fingers sloppy, and there have been cases of people quitting out of sheer frustration. Nevetheless, once it gets to you, it is enormously satisfactory to play it, because of the challenge it suposses. I’ve been playing it for 12 years already, and I still have vast amounts to learn, so that should give you a pretty accurate idea of how tough it is.

And that’s it. I hope you enjoyed it.

Media and references:

A really special lighthouse

The emblematic Tower of Hercules is not only the symbol of A Coruna (Galicia), the city where it is placed, but the oldest lighthouse of the world that is still working. Its beautiful facade, its story and the unique views that can be obtained from the top of the Tower, make it receive thousands of visitors every year. In addition, this lighthouse is also famous for having been declared World Heritage site. Read more…

Categories: Arts, History

Basque Mythology

December 11, 2012 1 comment

Basque Mythology has survived in the Basque Country since prehistory. The basque people have always had a strong own culture and  language, but later, their rites and beliefs were influenced by the Roman Empire and the Christianity.

The main deity in the Basque Mythology is Amalurra. The Earth is considered as the source that gives life to all beings and it is said that it holds many treasures inside.

Another impanbotoortant divinity in the Basque Mythology is the goddess Mari. She lives in   all the basque mountaintops and her most important dwelling is the Anboto´s cave, therefore she is called The Lady of Anboto, too. Mari represents the nature and the supreme ethical power. She can appear as a beautiful woman, as an animal, as a tree or as a weather phenomenon. It is said that Mari crosses the sky as a bright light to go to the Txindoki mountain from the Anboto. Her movements have a great influence in the weather and when she is in the Anboto is the time of raining and when she is in another mountain the weather is sunny.

The partner of Mari is Maju or Sugar. He is a darker god and he can appear as a man or as a snake or a dragon. He lives in other caves such as Amunda, Baltzola or Atarreta. He has two sons: Mikelatz (represents evil) and Atarabi (represents good). Maju was related with the Princess of Mundaka and it is said that  Jaun Zuria, the first mythological Lord of Biscay, was the result of this relationship.

Another divinity with great relevance is Eguzki Amandre, the Sun. She gives us the light and the heat and has the power to eliminate all the bad geniuses and the darkness. In many legends the Sun is considered as the God´s eye and a very extended tradition is to put an Eguzkilore (flower of the sun) in the doors of the houses to keep away the bad spirits. More information about the Eguzkilore.

Ilargi Amandre is the divinity of the Moon. She is considered as the God´s face and the light of the dead people. The last important deity is Urtzi, the Sky. It is said that this divinity has been influenced by the Norse mythology because of his similarity with the God Thor.

Apart from the divinities there are a lot of geniuses and elves. Some of them are:

  • Basajaun: He is the Lord of the Forests. He is represented as a big man covered of hair with a claw-shaped foot. He helps the shepherds with their flocks and is a master of many crafts.
  • Lamia: She is similar to the sirens or the nymphs. She is represented as a beautiful woman waist up but with flippers, hooves or fishtail depending on the zone where the lamia lives. Her favourite activity is to comb her long hair withbasajaun a golden comb. She helps the humans when they need help but she can also be very evil if she doesn´t get what she wants.
  • Jentilak: They were the first settlers of the Basque Country. They were very big and strong and could launch boulders great distances. With the arrival of Christianity they had to move to remote areas and they disappeared.
  • Sorginak: They are female and evil geniuses sometimes. They could be priestesses of Mari. On Friday evening they celebrate the Akelarre, which was a meeting to worship the genius Akerbeltz.
  • Tartalo: Is a terrifying cyclop who eats men and works as a pastor. It has a big influence from the greek mythology.
  • Olentzero: He was a jentil but with the arrival of the Christianity it was adapted to the new religion. He was related with the time of the winter solstice and the burning of all the old things. Nowadays, he brings presents to the people announcing the birth of Christ and brings coal to those who have misbehaved.
  • Iratxoak: They are elves that make mischiefs for the humans. The can appear in many different forms of animals or goblins. They are related to the ferns and they live in caverns and wells.

There are so much geniuses in the Basque Mythology and there are a lot of legends and stories about them such as the Galtxagorris, the legend of Martin Txiki or the Greedy Lamia. One of the most important writers and researchers was J.M Barandiaran, who wrote several books about the Basque Mythology. Nowadays, it is becoming more popular because of the foundation of some museums such as the JM Barandiaran of Ataun Museum and the Mythological Park of Mungia.

To sum up, I would say that the Basque Country has a rich mythology that has been influenced by many countries such as the nordic or the romans. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Basque Mythology is that is matriarchal, and the female divinities are more than the male. It is very ancient and, like all mythology, contains a deep and complex meaning, therefore, I think that it is very interesting and it is a good idea to make it more known.


Egyptian Mythology

Egyptian mythology is composed of many gods and goddesses that Egyptians worshiped, million years ago.  For many of them temples and palaces were built, in exchange for favors. There were five group of gods in which Egyptians believed. Blue words linked you to know more about the topic.

The word mythology is composed of words   Mytos and  Logos .Mythology started with the first civilizations, according to the religion of each place. It was composed of myths, narratives that gave explanation for human existence. There are many mythologies over time and space, but this time we will focus only on the Egyptian, which is long and complex. The period in which this religion lived, was among the Prehistoric Period (5500 – 4000 BC) and Christianity. (535 A.C)Map

Egypt is located on the brooks of the middle and lower channel of the Nile River, but it is not nowadays Egypt .It has three periods of splendor: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Empire. But, the mythology only experimented two: the first, predynastic, here the principal gods and goddess were created. The second was when people were grouped into two lands, the Upper and Lower Egypt.It was when some gods took more relevance than others, depending on the city.

The main gods are organized into five groups:

The Ennead of Heliopolis. “Souls of Thoth” Heliopolis was a city of Lower Egypt. The gods that were completed this Ennead are:



Atum: “Which exists by itself”, was the first god who was associated with the sun, and the creator of other gods and goddess. Then he became in another god called Ra, who is more known, but between them there was a difference,  Atum  was represented by sun and  Ra  by the sun and at its zenith. It was also the god who took the dead to heaven and used to live in a cave in the form of eel. This god was associated with some animals like the lion, the bull, lizard or the snake. He was represented as a man with a double crown, sometimes as an old man with a beard or a man with animal head.

Shu: He is the god of light and wind, thanks to his power in the wind ​​it made easier to raise the dead to heaven. He appears as a man with an ostrich feather on his head and in one hand he holds a scepter or an ankh, or as a man with one knee or holding the sky with his hands, the four pillars supporting the sky at the four cardinal points were called “pillars of Shu”.

Tefnut: Her name is composed by EFT (wet) and Nut (sky) words it that the reason for which she is the goddess of moisture. She is represented as a lioness-headed woman and in her hand takes the scepter and the ankh.

Nut: She is the goddess of the sky and creator of everything that composes it .She was also the daughter of Shu and Tefnut, and Gebs sister, who is her husband. Is the mother of gods who complete the Ennead, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth and Horus . She is represented with horns and disk of Hathor, holding in his hand a papyrus scepter and the symbol of “life” or as a cow, or a pot on his head and the hieroglyphic symbol of heaven.

Geb: He was the god of the land’s surface and of the inside, where the graves were, so it was very important to the book of the dead. It is represented as a man of dark green skin, colors that represent the land of the Nile, its vegetation and life, with the crown of Lower Egypt.

Isis: “Great magician” the queen of the gods and goddess of motherhood, children and family in general. She is shown as a woman with a throne on her head.

Osiris: He is the father of Horus, and husband of Isis. Represents the resurrection, fertility, vegetation and  agriculture. Osiris is represented as a mummified man because his brother Seth (who represented evil) killed him and threw into the Nile. Isis was his wife and who recovered and resurrected him. This myth shows how as good overcomes evil.



Nefti: symbolizes the darkness, the night, the invisible and the death. She is represented as a woman with the hieroglyph of her name as a crown. Sometimes she takes horns with the solar disk. She had many other ways, also represented her with a pair of wings, because it helped Isis ( her sister) bring the dead to afterlife.

Seth: He is the god of brute force, of the tumultuous, the uncontainable, what is not good and darkness. Seth was the god of storms, war and violence, was also take part in the production of the oasis.

The Ogdoad of Hermopolis: It consisted of several god: Num, Nunet, Heh, Hehet, Ket, Keket, Amonet.. . But the most important is Amon, It is represented as a man with two large feathers on his head. He is the god of the occult. He was a god who could not be seen by   mortals or gods. Also had the power of the wind,  so it was very important for navigation. Eventually he merged with the god Ra, becoming in Amon – Ra. RA was the  god who  created the sky, the sun and could create life.Is  depicted as a man with the head of Alcon, with a solar disk crown.

The triad Elephantine: Elephantine is an island in Egypt where they worshiped three gods: Khnum, Satis and Anuket. The most important was the first .Was a  man with a ram’s head wearing an ankh and a scepter. He was the god of fertility, the water and the underworld. It was also a potter, and that shaped the destiny of the Egyptians.

The triad of Thebes, the gods were amon , mut and khonsu, but the most important was Amon

The Triad of Memphis is formed by Path, Sekhmet and Nefertum. The principal was path.

These are not the unique gods but they are the most representatives. It is necessary to give three more names, because they were important for the ancient Egypt’s.

Bastet: The goddess of happiness represented with Head-cat. Cats were worshiped throughout Egypt.Anubis:God of the death, represented with dog-headed Egyptian ankh and scepter. Maat: Goddess of justice and  truth

As we can see Egyptian mythology is very complex and was undergoing changes over the years. But while religion is a complex rich in myths through art of the time achieved last until today, that is still being studied at a time that is very appreciated by historians.


Julia Pérez Esteban

The Berlin Wall

December 3, 2012 Leave a comment


In 1961, 3 million people went from Eastern Germany to the capitalism. German Democratic Republic noticed that the population was going down, so it decided to built a provisinal wire wall on 12th August 1961. It was a 155 km long wall, which divided the city in two sides. No-one could pass through it, not even the public transport. During next days the wall went from being made of wire to be made of bricks. It reached 4 m tall. At the same a ditch was built in order to prevent the crossing to both sides of the city. That ditch was called “the death strip”. The wall was guarded 24 hours every day by militars.


In between 1961 and 1989 more tha 5,000 people people tried to cross the wall. 3,000 people were arrested and about 100 died trying to cross it.


When the frontiers between Austria and Hungary were opened May 1989, the wall lost its aim because Germans increasingly seeking asilum in Hungary. The massive mobilization sparked demonstration at Alexanders square. This demonstrations achieved that the German Democratic Republic allowed the crossing to the other side of the city. A lot of people crowded the check points of the Wall. The following day cracks were opened in the wall, and there it began the end of the wall.

Categories: History
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