¿Have you ever heard about The Good, the Bad and the Ugly? ¿And Once Upon a Time in the West? The genre these films belong to is the spaghetti western, born in the sixties and which revolutionized the way of making films.
The spaghetti western was born in Europe, more precisely in Italy and Spain. The films identified because of their dirty looking, their particular way of showing the violence in its magnificence, their simple characters and their excellent soundtracks (highlighting Ennio Morricone´s ones). The spaghetti westerns, which break up with the American ideas, were at first left out, but well seen then. This genre became so popular that it invaded literature, appearing great writers such as Silver Kane, Clark Carrados or Marcial Lafuente Estefanía.
Between these films, it stands out Sergio Leone’s the Dollar’s Trilogy and Once Upon a Time in the West, which is considered a masterpiece. It can be said that Leone reinvented the westerns and turned them fashionable. Read more…
HOW DID SOCIAL NETWORKS START?
Between 2001 and 2002, the first social network appeared, but it was in 2003 when Facebook was created. Quickly, some companies entered the social networks to motivate their workers.
All started in Harvard University when a boy named Mark Zuckerberg, had the idea to create a site where students could communicate.
But a few years later, some social networks were created. For example, Tuenti that is the most used in Spain. In Tuenti people can share photos with their friends and send messages with other people. Nowadays, Tuenti has more than 12 millions of users. Another social network is Twitter. In twitter you can send messages with a lot of people and also with famous people.
- For example, social networks are transforming the way of doing business, specially marketing, It’s a low cost way of promoting a business.
- makes it possible to be in contact with people who you couldn´t be in with, and you can also recover past friends (school, university, others jobs that you had…)
- It is a very useful tool to share any information (photos, videos, newspaper articles, ideas …)
- In addition it makes you be more available and more easily localizated if you often use the internet.
- Lack of awareness by users that their information will be accessible to anyone.
- Information is made public about personal characteristics such as ideology, sexual orientation, religious, and political .
- The possibility that other people who you don´t know, use your information for illegally things.
- the possibility of making public some fake information or without authorization.
- loss of real social life.
TIPS TO USE SOCIAL NETWORKS
Don´t let to other people to see your photos and your personal information.
Parents can create an account on Facebook or Tuenti to watch their children and to know what they are doing.
3- Be careful
Be especially careful if you receive a message from a person who you don´t know. You shouldn´t answer to it.
WHAT YOU SHOULDN´T DO
Don´t post pictures of other people without their consent.
Don´t write personal information.Don´t post private photos of yourself.
Don´t answer to dangerous messages.
Tennis is a sport which was first played in Birmingham, England, around 1859. As many other english sports, it requires a lot of practice in order to acquire a good technique, and it is quite difficult to learn to play it.
Every player uses a racket to strike a rubber ball covered with felt, that needs to end in the opponent’s court. The objective of the game is to get such a good shot that the opponent cannot return it, or find difficulties at the time of doing it.
Cycling has changed very much during the last years. It is not what it was in the past. As everything these days, it is more technologized, more controlled, and it has lost spontaneity, it has lost what in the past made this sport become epic. But what do I mean when I say that it has lost spontaneity, that it is more technologized?
50 years ago a cyclist could ride an average of 100 races per year. Today that is an impossible fact. Now a rider knows what races he is going to part in even before the season starts. And it is not common to ride more than 60 races per year. Differences among cyclist are disappearing and this goes against the spectacle. The creation of the World Tour has congregated the most important and historical races in a kind of league in which only the best 18 teams can take part in. Almost all cyclists get prepared for the same races and due to the little preparation and competitive difference that exists among them, competitions are becoming more and more boring.
In the past, cyclists used to ride more races and, as there was not any league that congregated the best competitions, all the races were competitive and. Besides, the preparation was very different from what is nowadays. Riders guided themselves by their feelings; they did not prepare a race 2 or 3 months before it so a lot of times they were not in the same shape when taking part in a race, and the spectacle they used to show was bigger.
On the other hand, all changes have not been negative. The strict control cycling suffers from these day has also some positive aspects. Unfortunately, cycling is today more known for drug taking than for sports reasons. But this means that it is now more difficult, I would say almost impossible, to take any kind of illegal product that improves your physical condition without being caught. The case of Lance Armstrong, which is known all over the world, is the best example of how even the most meticulous way of drug taking can be detected. He has always been under suspicion, but the USADA has finally achieved to demonstrate that his victories were not “real”. This is the most famous case, but not the only one that have been the las decade: Floyd Landis, Ricardo Ricco, Alberto Contador, Iban Mayo… there is a very long list of cases that have damaged the health of cycling, but thanks to the progress that has been made in this field it is becoming more infrequent to find a case of “doping”
In conclusion, it is clear that today´s cycling is very different from what it was in the past, and although technology advantages have brought a big progress, there are some habits that should be taken up again in order to make this sport more attractive and enjoyable.
- Carlos Torres, RESUMEN DEL AÑO El caso Armstrong causó un tsunami en el año de Wiggins . http://www.elnortedecastilla.es. Available at: http://www.elnortedecastilla.es/agencias/20121212/deportes/mas-deportes/resumen-caso-armstrong-causo-tsunami_201212121151.html [Accessed December 14, 2012].
- Peio Agirre, Momentos epicos del ciclismo en la era moderna. http://www.lavidak.com. Available at: http://www.lavidak.com/Legion/ciclismo/pdf/ciclismo1.pdf [Accessed December 14, 2012].
Post honetan, “Eraztunen Jauna” trilogia azalduko dut. 10 urte inguru izan arren eta nahiz eta “The Hobbit” pelikula atarian daukagun, ezin ditugu film hauek ahaztu. Aipatutako Peter Jacksonen pelikula berriak aurreko sagaren pasioa berriro ere piztu du, eta horregatik post hau eskaini nahi nizueke.
Eraztunen Jauna trilogia zinemaratu egin den saga bat da. Hiru filmez dago osatuta: “Eraztunen Jauna: Eraztunaren Elkartea”, “Eraztunen Jauna: Bi dorreak” eta “Eraztunen Jauna: Erregearen Itzulera”. 2001. urtean agertu zen lehenengo pelikula, 2002an bigarrena eta hurrengo urtean azkenengoa.
J. R. R. Tolkien idazleak idatzitako eleberrian dago oinarrituta trilogia. Tolkienek 1954. urtean amaitu zuen idazten, eta 1978an gaztelerara itzuli zen. Pelikula hauek baino lehen, 1978an Ralph Bakshi zuzendariak Tolkienen liburuaren lehenengo zati erdia zinemara eraman zuen, baina animaziozko pelikula gisa.
Proiektu zinematografiko erraldoiena izan omen da, eta 2900 milioi dolar bildu ziren hiru pelikulak batuz. Proiektu osoa 8 urtez garatu zen, eta eszena guztiak Zeelanda Berrian grabatu ziren, Peter Jacksonen aberrian.
Itzelezko proiektu honek oso mereziak dituen sari ugari irabazi zituen. 17 Oscar Sari, 10 BAFTA sari eta 10 Urrezko Globo sari jaso zituen. Horrez gain, lehenengo pelikulak 870.000.000 USD inguru bildu zituen, gutxien bildu zituena izanik. Bigarrenak, ia 930.000.000, apur bat gehiago. Baina azkenengoa izan zen txapela irabazi zuena, bere diru-bilketa 1.119.000.000koa izatera heldu baitzen. Hirugarren pelikula, “Eraztunen jauna: Erregearen Itzulera”, bilketa handiena lortu duten filmen rankingean dago, 6. postuan, “Transformers: Dark of the Moon” aurrean izanik. Beste bi filmak atzerago daude zerrendan, lehenengoa 29. postuan eta bigarrena 20.ean.
Nobelaren jarraitzaileen artetik, kritikak ere jaso ditu. Nobela eta pelikulen arteko akatsak ugariak direla diote. Agertzen ez diren pertsonaiak, eszena oso garrantzitsu ukatuak, eszena batzuk nahasturik euren artean… Adibidez, lehenengo pelikulan, Nazgûl talde batek Frodo eta bere lagunak erasotzen dituzte. Bat-batean, Arwen elfoa agertzen da protagonistak salbatzeko. Liburuan, bestalde, Glorfindel deitutako beste elfo bat azaltzen da, Nazgûl horiek hil eta lagun-taldea salbu ipintzen dituena.
Inkongruentzia horiek izanagatik ere, trilogiak itzelezko arrakasta izan zuen. Argi ikus daiteke jaso zituen sari kopuruan. Aktoreak oso famatuak dira, eta ederto jokatu zuten euren paperean. Protagonista nagusia, Frodo Bolson, Elijah Wood aktoreak egin zuen, eta bere lagun banaezina, Samsagaz Gamyi, Sean Astin da. Bestalde, hiru kide gerlariak, Aragorn, Legolas eta Gimli, Viggo Mortensen, Orlando Bloom eta John Rhys-Davies aktoreek hurrenez hurren egiten dute euren papera.
Esandako guztiagatik, trilogia ezin hobea gauzatu zuen Jacksonek. Kritika diezaiokegun gauza bakarra, nire ustez, liburuarekiko akatsak dira. Hala ere, jantziak, musika, akzioa, tramaren garapena eta aktoreek bikain daukate, eta horiek guztiek beste arazoak minimizatzen dituzte.
- Anon, El Señor de los Anillos. Aurum. Available at: http://www.elsenordelosanillos.aurum.es/film/trilogy/ [Accessed December 14, 2012a].
- Anon, El Señor de los Anillos: La Comunidad del Anillo. IMDb. Available at: http://www.imdb.es/title/tt0120737/ [Accessed December 14, 2012b].
- Anon, El señor de los anillos Wikipedia. Wikipedia. Available at: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trilog%C3%ADa_cinematogr%C3%A1fica_de_El_Se%C3%B1or_de_los_Anillos [Accessed December 14, 2012c].
- Anon, Lord of the Rings. Available at: http://www.lordoftherings.net/ [Accessed December 14, 2012d].
- Anon, Los 10 errores garrafales de la adaptación al cine de El Señor de los Anillos. Efecto Tetris. Available at: http://www.efectotetris.com/2011/05/25/los-10-errores-garrafales-de-la-adaptacion-al-cine-de-el-senor-de-los-anillos/ [Accessed December 14, 2012e].
The aim of this work is to summarize the history of skiing and at the same time, to highlight the main characteristics of this sport in our country. Thus, firstly, we will talk about the general history of skiing, and then, we will focus on our country and its resorts.
It is clear that skiing is not only a favorite sport for many; it can be also considered an art. However, the history of this famous sport is somewhat obscure. Regarding its origins and thanks to historians ‘works, we do have a good idea of the basic history of skiing. It is clear that the first type of skiing was cross country skiing, which then evolved into downhill skiing. It is also thought that skiing has been around since before Christ, when the Norwegian hunters had to ski on flat wood to get more speed when hunting animals. The first findings were found in Rodody, Norway, although other proof has been found in Russia, for the same use.
But, this did not remain the same. Downhill skiing came later, during a more modern era. In 1850, Sondre Norheim, a Norwegian, constructed a birch binding that enabled skiers to ski without the risk of losing their skis. Norheim’s bindings were perhaps the first stiff bindings, which tied his boots to his skis and provided more control than leather straps. While others had built devices similar to this before Norheim, he paired his birch binding with shorter, curved skis that enabled him to win the first Norwegian downhill skiing competition. Most historians believe that Norheim’s method of skiing is similar to the modern day form of telemark, or “free heel” skiing.
So, it is obvious that with more and more improvements, skiing became the popular recreational activity that we participate in today. In other words, little by little, techniques were perfected to be able to use skis, and the art of skiing was born: how to ski over flat plains with no hills, styles of ski, discipline etc. Material for skis has gradually been improved over the years to increase mobility and use. In addition to this, lots of ski brands were set up. In addition to this, we cannot forget the first Skiing Olympics that took place in the town of Chamonix and later in St. Moritz and Oslo. Read more…