Archive for December, 2012

Leone´s the Dollar’s Trilogy

December 20, 2012 Leave a comment

¿Have you ever heard about The Good, the Bad and the Ugly? ¿And Once Upon a Time in the West? The genre these films belong to is the spaghetti western, born in the sixties and which revolutionized the way of making films.

The spaghetti western was born in Europe, more precisely in Italy and Spain. The films identified because of their dirty looking, their particular way of showing the violence in its magnificence, their simple characters and their excellent soundtracks (highlighting Ennio Morricone´s ones). The spaghetti westerns, which break up with the American ideas, were at first left out, but well seen then. This genre became so popular that it invaded literature, appearing great writers such as Silver Kane, Clark Carrados or Marcial Lafuente Estefanía.

Between these films, it stands out Sergio Leone’s the Dollar’s Trilogy and Once Upon a Time in the West, which is considered a masterpiece. It can be said that Leone reinvented the westerns and turned them fashionable. Read more…

Social Networks

December 16, 2012 1 comment


Between 2001 and 2002, the first social network appeared, but it was in 2003 when Facebook was created. Quickly, some companies entered the social networks to motivate their workers.
All started in Harvard University when a boy named Mark Zuckerberg, had the idea to create a site where students could communicate.
But a few years later, some social networks were created. For example, Tuenti that is the most used in Spain. In Tuenti people can share photos with their friends and send messages with other people. Nowadays, Tuenti has more than 12 millions of users. Another social network is Twitter. In twitter you can send messages with a lot of people and also with famous people.



  • For example, social networks are transforming the way of doing business, specially marketing, It’s a low cost way of promoting a business.
  • makes it possible to be in contact with people who you couldn´t be in with, and you can also recover past friends (school, university, others jobs that you had…)
  • It is a very useful tool to share any information (photos, videos, newspaper articles, ideas …)
  • In addition it makes you be more available and more easily localizated if you often use the internet.



  • Lack of awareness by users that their information will be accessible to anyone.
  •  Information is made ​​public about personal characteristics such as ideology, sexual orientation, religious, and political .
  • The possibility that other people who you don´t know, use your information for illegally things.
  • the possibility of making public some fake information or without authorization.
  • loss of real social life.


1-  Privacy

Don´t let to other people to see your photos and your personal information.

2- Parents

Parents can create an account on Facebook or Tuenti to watch their children and to know what they are doing.

3- Be careful

Be especially careful if you receive a message from a person who you don´t know. You shouldn´t answer to it.


Privacidad HIDDEN_264_11829_FOTO_Seguridad_2 (3)

Don´t post pictures of other people without their consent.

Don´t write personal information.Don´t post private photos of yourself.

Don´t answer to dangerous messages.






Categories: Uncategorized


Tennis is a sport which was first played in Birmingham, England, around 1859. As many other english sports, it requires a lot of practice in order to acquire a good technique, and it is quite difficult to learn to play it.


Every player uses a racket to strike a rubber ball covered with felt, that needs to end in the opponent’s court. The objective of the game is to get such a good shot that the opponent cannot return it, or find difficulties at the time of doing it.

Read more…

Categories: Uncategorized Tags: , ,

Modern cycling

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Cycling has changed very much during the last years. It is not what it was in the past. As everything these days, it is more technologized, more controlled, and it has lost spontaneity, it has lost what in the past made this sport become epic. But what do I mean when I say that it has lost spontaneity, that it is more technologized?

50 years ago a cyclist could ride an average of 100 races per year. Today that is an impossible fact. Now a rider knows what races he is going to part in even before the season starts. And it is not common to ride more than 60 races per year. Differences among cyclist are disappearing and this goes against the spectacle.  The creation of the World Tour has congregated the most important and historical races in a kind of league in which only the best 18 teams can take part in. Almost all cyclists get prepared for the same races and due to the little preparation and competitive difference that exists among them, competitions are becoming more and more boring.

In the past, cyclists used to ride more races and, as there was not any league that congregated the best competitions, all the races were competitive and. Besides, the preparation was very different from what is nowadays. Riders guided themselves by their feelings; they did not prepare a race 2 or 3 months before it so a lot of times they were not in the same shape when taking part in a race, and the spectacle they used to show was bigger.

On the other hand, all changes have not been negative. The strict control cycling suffers from these day has also some positive aspects. Unfortunately, cycling is today more known for drug taking than for sports reasons. But this means that it is now more difficult, I would say almost impossible, to take any kind of illegal product that improves your physical condition without being caught. The case of Lance Armstrong, which is known all over the world, is the best example of how even the most meticulous way of drug taking can be detected. He has always been under suspicion, but the USADA has finally achieved to demonstrate that his victories were not “real”. This is the most famous case, but not the only one that have been the las decade: Floyd Landis, Ricardo Ricco, Alberto Contador, Iban Mayo… there is a very long list of cases that have damaged the health of cycling, but thanks to the progress that has been made in this field it is becoming more infrequent to find a case of “doping”

In conclusion, it is clear that today´s cycling is very different from what it was in the past, and although technology advantages have brought a big progress, there are some habits that should be taken up again in order to make this sport more attractive and enjoyable.


Categories: Uncategorized

Eraztunen Jauna

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Post honetan, “Eraztunen Jauna” trilogia azalduko dut. 10 urte inguru izan arren eta nahiz eta “The Hobbit” pelikula atarian daukagun, ezin ditugu film hauek ahaztu. Aipatutako Peter Jacksonen pelikula berriak aurreko sagaren pasioa berriro ere piztu du, eta horregatik post hau eskaini nahi nizueke.

Eraztunen Jauna trilogia zinemaratu egin den saga bat da. Hiru filmez dago osatuta: “Eraztunen Jauna: Eraztunaren Elkartea”, “Eraztunen Jauna: Bi dorreak” eta “Eraztunen Jauna: Erregearen Itzulera”. 2001. urtean agertu zen lehenengo pelikula, 2002an bigarrena eta hurrengo urtean azkenengoa.

J. R. R. Tolkien idazleak idat20060818041914-el-senor-de-los-anillos2zitako eleberrian dago oinarrituta trilogia. Tolkienek 1954. urtean amaitu zuen idazten, eta 1978an gaztelerara itzuli zen. Pelikula hauek baino lehen, 1978an Ralph Bakshi zuzendariak Tolkienen liburuaren lehenengo zati erdia zinemara eraman zuen, baina animaziozko pelikula gisa.

Proiektu zinematografiko erraldoiena izan omen da, eta 2900 milioi dolar bildu ziren hiru pelikulak batuz. Proiektu osoa 8 urtez garatu zen, eta eszena guztiak Zeelanda Berrian grabatu ziren, Peter Jacksonen aberrian.

Itzelezko proiektu honek oso mereziak dituen sari ugari irabazi zituen. 17 Oscar Sari, 10 BAFTA sari eta 10 Urrezko Globo sari jaso zituen. Horrez gain, lehenengo pelikulak 870.000.000 USD inguru bildu zituen, gutxien bildu zituena izanik. Bigarrenak, ia 930.000.000, apur bat gehiago. Baina azkenengoa izan zen txapela irabazi zuena, bere diru-bilketa izatera heldu baitzen. Hirugarren pelikula, “Eraztunen jauna: Erregearen Itzulera”, bilketa handiena lortu duten filmen rankingean dago, 6. postuan, “Transformers: Dark of the Moon” aurrean izanik. Beste bi filmak atzerago daude zerrendan, lehenengoa 29. postuan eta bigarrena 20.ean.

Nobelaren jarraitzaileen artetik, kritikak ere jaso ditu. Nobela eta pelikulen arteko aanillo_el señor de los anilloskatsak ugariak direla diote. Agertzen ez diren pertsonaiak, eszena oso garrantzitsu ukatuak, eszena batzuk nahasturik euren artean…  Adibidez, lehenengo pelikulan, Nazgûl talde batek Frodo eta bere lagunak erasotzen dituzte. Bat-batean, Arwen elfoa agertzen da protagonistak salbatzeko. Liburuan, bestalde, Glorfindel deitutako beste elfo bat azaltzen da, Nazgûl horiek hil eta lagun-taldea salbu ipintzen dituena.

Inkongruentzia horiek izanagatik ere, trilogiak itzelezko arrakasta izan zuen. Argi ikus daiteke jaso zituen sari kopuruan. Aktoreak oso famatuak dira, eta ederto jokatu zuten euren paperean. Protagonista nagusia, Frodo Bolson, Elijah Wood aktoreak egin zuen, eta bere lagun banaezina, Samsagaz Gamyi, Sean Astin da. Bestalde, hiru kide gerlariak, Aragorn, Legolas eta Gimli, Viggo Mortensen, Orlando Bloom eta John Rhys-Davies aktoreek  hurrenez hurren egiten dute euren papera.

Esandako guztiagatik, trilogia ezin hobea gauzatu zuen Jacksonek. Kritika diezaiokegun gauza bakarra, nire ustez, liburuarekiko akatsak dira. Hala ere, jantziak, musika, akzioa, tramaren garapena eta aktoreek bikain daukate, eta horiek guztiek beste arazoak minimizatzen dituzte.




Categories: Cinema a social trading company?

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment twitterThe otto group is an big enterprise based in germany and holds several sub companies. The most popular among them is A popular website for online-shopping. In July 2010 the web-shop got 5,6 million visitors. That is more than 160.000 visitors a day. This makes this website a good place to communicate social projects the company is related in. But how does combine social projects and profit oriented marketing?

Read more…


December 14, 2012 2 comments

The aim of this work is to summarize the history of skiing and at the same time, to highlight the main characteristics of this sport in our country. Thus, firstly, we will talk about the general history of skiing, and then, we will focus on our country and its resorts.

It is clear that skiing is not only a favorite sport for many; it can be also considered an art. However, the history of this famous sport is somewhat obscure. Regarding its origins and thanks to historians ‘works, we do have a good idea of the basic history of skiing. It is clear that the first type of skiing was cross country skiing, which then evolved into downhill skiing. It is also thought that skiing has been around since before Christ, when the Norwegian hunters had to ski on flat wood to get more speed when hunting animals. The first findings were found in Rodody, Norway, although other proof has been found in Russia, for the same use.



But, this did not remain the same. Downhill skiing came later, during a more modern era. In 1850, Sondre Norheim, a Norwegian, constructed a birch binding that enabled skiers to ski without the risk of losing their skis. Norheim’s bindings were perhaps the first stiff bindings, which tied his boots to his skis and provided more control than leather straps. While others had built devices similar to this before Norheim, he paired his birch binding with shorter, curved skis that enabled him to win the first Norwegian downhill skiing competition. Most historians believe that Norheim’s method of skiing is similar to the modern day form of telemark, or “free heel” skiing.


So, it is obvious that with more and more improvements, skiing became the popular recreational activity that we participate in today. In other words, little by little, techniques were perfected to be able to use skis, and the art of skiing was born: how to ski over flat plains with no hills, styles of ski, discipline etc. Material for skis has gradually been improved over the years to increase mobility and use. In addition to this, lots of ski brands were set up. In addition to this, we cannot forget the first Skiing Olympics that took place in the town of Chamonix and later in St. Moritz and Oslo. Read more…

Pencak Silat

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

0- Sarrera

Borroka-arte bat da eta Indonesian sortu zen. Gaur egun leku askotan praktikatzen da hala nola: Indonesia, Singapur, Malasia, Tailandia, Vietnam, Brunei eta baita Ameriketako eta Europako herrialde askotan ere. Izen horren esanahia hurrengoa da: Pencak “eraso eraginkorra” esan nahi du eta bigarrenak Silat “mugimendu artistikoa”. Ez da oso ezaguna jendearentzat baina kirolaren alorrean oso ezaguna da.

2- Mamia

Penca Silat-ek arau edo oinarri batzuk ditu ala nola janzkera, teknika eta agurra garrantzitsuenen artean eta hauen artean osatzen den kirola da. Janzkerari dagokionez, kimono edo bayu izeneko arropak erabiltzen dituzte koloreko gerriko batekin. Egoera berezietarako eta praktikatzen duzunaren mendean edo arabera janzkera berezia izaten da zeren eta kimonoa edo bayua apaintzen dutelako joskerekin eta buruan zapi bat eramaten dutelako eskuz jositako irudiekin.

Teknikari erreparatuz, teknika oso landua da, ordu asko behar dira maila on batera eltzeko zeren eta juntadura edo koordinazioa oso garrantzitsua baita eta egin beharreko kolpeak, giltzak edota edozein motatako pausuak zailtasun handia dute eta behin eta berriz praktikatu behar dira azkenean ongi irtetzeko. Bestalde, abiadurak eta posizioak garrantzia handia du zeren eta borroka egiterakoan zure aurkaria baino arinagoa eta zuhurragoa izan behar zara eta ez soilik indartsuagoa. Borrokan egiterako orduan,  karratu baten barnean egiten da eta karratu horren barnean bi borobil daude (bat zortzi metrokoa eta bestea hiru metrokoa) borrokalariak bata bestearen aurrean jartzen dira hiru metroko tartea utziz. Borrokaren helburua ahalik eta puntu gehien lortzea da eta horretarako aurkariaren golpeak saihestu eta berehala zuk eraso behar duzu. Bestetik borroka-arte honen helburua defentsa pertsonala indartzea da, kalean edo edozein lekutan arazoak izatekotan defenditzen jakiteko eta esan dezaket kirola egiteko ere aproposa dela errendimendu askoko kirola baita. Esan beharra dago ere, kirol hau armekin ere praktikatua izan ohi dala nahiz eta borroka federatuak egiterakoan ez erabili.

Agurra ere oso garrantzitsua da, borroka hasi baino lehen zure aurkaria agurtu beharra daukazu eta entrenamendua hasi baino lehenago ere entrenatzaileari agurtu behar da errespetua erakusteko eta baita espiritualki entrenatzeko erabili ohi delako ingurugiroarekin bat egoteko eta horrela armonian egoteko.

Kirol honek ere badu federakunde internazionala lehenago aipatu dudana PERSILAT. Erakunde hau Pencak Silat garapenaren inguruan arduratzen da, horretarako: txapelketak, ikastaroak, festibalak… antolatzen ditu. Federakunde honek duen helburua Pencak Silat sustatzea eta honen garapena sustatzea da, mundu guztian ezaguna izan dadin.

Espainiako lurraldeari dagokionez, Pencak Silat 70ko hamarkadan heldu zen Jon Barrenetxearen eskutik, eta lehen klaseak Madrilen eman ziren Indonesiako enbaxadan hain zuzen. Hasiera batean horrelako kirol motak praktikatzen zituen jendearentzako egina zegoan baian gero honen garapena sustatzeko talde bat sortu zen hau irakasteko Espainiatik zehar. 80ko hamarkadan beste talde bat sortu zen eta horrela Galdakoko gimnasioan irakasten hasi zen Jon Barrenetxearen eskutik eta Indonesiako irakasleen eskutik. Horrela joan zen garatzen Espainian eta Euskal Herriko hainbat herritan (esaterako Igorre, nik entrenatzen dudan lekuan). Gaur egun ia ia soilik Euskal Herrian praktikatzen da nahiz eta badaude eskolak Kordoban, Extremaduran… Eskola hauen helburua estatu mailako federakuntza bat sortzea izan zen horrela Pecak Silat indartzeko eta horretarako sortu zen Espainiako Pencak Silat federakundea eta era berean hau PERSILAT-eko zatia edo kidea delarik.

3- ondorioak

Pencak Silat oso erbilgarria izan daiteke edonorentzak, zeren eta kirola egiteaz gain kalerako defentsa pertsonala beharrezkoa baita gaur eguneko gizartea. Edonorentzat gustokoa izan daiteke praktikatzeko zeren eta benetan adrenalina askatzeko kirol egokia eta atsegina izan daitekeelako. Nik praktikatzen dudanez, esan ahal dizuet oso erabilgarria dela eta gainera benetan gustukoa baduzu Tailandia edo Indonesiara joateko gogoa ere sartuko zaizu, zergaitik? oso kirol erabilgarri eta interesgarria delako eta gainera zure barruarekin ere bakean gera zaitezke bertan jardunez. Hemen duzu bideo bat ikusgai nola praktikatzen den jakiteko:

4- Erreferentziak

Partaideak, P., Pencak Silat, Available at:

Anon, PERSILAT. Available at:



The right to education

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

The right to education it is very important and everybody should respect it and fight to integrate it in every state and society. Given the opportunity of receiving an education, everybody can learn and grow as a person, get a job and form a family and be part of the society where he/she lives.

UNESCO (United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization) establishes some basical principles for education as: the principle of no discrimination, equal opportunities and treatment, universal right to achieving an education and the solidarity principle.

These principles provide the basis and guidelines for the actuation rules of the Organization.

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Education is both a human right in itself and also an indispensable mean for being able to realize other human rights. Education is the primary vehicle by which persons that are economically and socially marginalized, can lift themselves out from poverty and obtain the necessary means to participate fully in their communities. Especially, education has a vital role in empowering women and in moving children away from exploitative works. Altough there are countries where the right to education is respected and there are other ones where it is not respected. For example in South-Saharan and Arab States there are still millions of children who are not able to have an education. Moreover, kids that live in a situation of poverty, in rural areas, or with any kind of disability are the ones that have fewer opportunities to develop their education. We also have to take into account that there are also differences on the contribution in education of the families from different regions of the world. In Africa families contribute in the 49% of the spending in education. Latin American and Caribbean countries contribute in the 25%. However, In North America and Europe families only have to contribute in the 7% of the total.

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Increasingly, nowadays education is recognized as one of the best financial investments that a State can make. But the importance of education is not just practical: a well-educated and active mind that is able to wonder freely, is one of the best rewards of human existence.


Forum Sport

Forum Sport, Eroski kooperatibaren barne aurki ditzakegun 44 dendek osatzen dute. 1991.urtean Genar Andrinuak, Marino Lejarretak eta Miguel Indurainek kirola oinarritzat duten biltegi hauek sortzea erabaki zuten.

Forum Sport talde bat lez funtzionatzen du. Hau egituran nabari da, non kirolariak izan diren bazkideak aurki daitezke.  Aitzindariak dira teknika eta material berriak sartzen kirolen praktikarako, betiere garantia eta kalitate ezin hobea ziurtaraziz. Akzionisten taldea langileekin osatzen da eta eroski taldearen barne dagoenez, kooperatiba horrek duen esperientziazeta negozioetarako duen egonkortasunaz baliatuz, etorkizunean agertuko diren erronkei aurre egiteko tresnak izan baditu Forum Sport-ek.

Ez  dago tokiz kanpo bere aurkaririk hurbilenak, Decahtlon-ek, garatzen dituen hainbat ideia interesgarri aipatzea. Horien artean aipagarriena, sare sozialetan profil ugari dituela da. Bai facebook-en, twitter-en, eta beste zenbait saretan profilak ditu. Horrez gain gure mugikorrean app bat deskargatzeko aukera ere badago. Era honetan euren izena asko hedatzen da denbora tarte labur batean.

Forum Sport-ek  presentzia eskasa du sare sozialetan, ez dauka ez Facebook-eko edota Twitter-eko profilik. Linkedin-en aurki dezakegu bakarrik euren presentzia. Bertan langile ugari aurki daitezke, barne interakziorako eta mundu mailan ezagunagoak izateko baliogarria da. Baliteke beste sare sozialetan ez agertzearen arrazoia, seriotasun irudi bat eskaini nahi izatea dela. Hala ere, eurek babestutako hainbat ekintzek badituzte sare sozialetan profil propioak. Esate Baterako  Kosta Trail lasterketak bai facebook-en eta twitter-en baditu profilak, bertan frogaren berri guztiak jarrai daitezke, beste partaideekin elkarrizketak edota entrenamenduei buruzko gomendioak eta oharrak jaso.

Forum Sport-en kirola bizitzeko modu bat denez, edozein motatako kirolarien zalantzei erantzunak emateko borondatea daukate. Hori dela eta, erosleei kirola egiteko ekipamendu ugari eskaintzeaz gain, behar bezalako saltzaileak izaten saiatzen dira.  Saltzen den oro probatu egiten dute, era horretan bai profesionalak direnei edota kirola denbora pasa lez egiten dutenei gomendioak emateko gai dira.

Webgunea aztergai izanik, bertan muriltzeko bi aukera daude. Alde batetik sarean duten denda ikusteko aukera dugu. Eta bestalde, webgune korporatibora sartzeko aukera dugu. Lehengo aukeran promozioen zenbait irudi daude, gabonetako promozioko hainbat eskaintzenak. Ikusten den irudi handiaren gainean, lau erlaitz agertzen dira, enpresak erabiltzen dituen markak, jorratzen dituen kirolak, promozioak eta dendak arakatzeko aukera ematen dituztenak. Beherago kirolen araberako erlaitzak ditugu, behar den produktua aurkitzeko. Azkenik hiru zutabeetan banaturik produkturik salduenak, markarik salduenak eta erosketarako laguntza aurkezten dira. liburuxka deskargatzeko aukera ematen duena; bazkide txartelarekin lortzen direnak, edota opari txartelak eskaintzen dituena.

Webgune korporatiboa aztergai izanik, zenbait irudi agertzen zaizkigu orrialdearen erdialdean. Irudiek  bai gabonetako promozioari, bazkide promozioei eta opari txartelari egiten diete erreferentzia. Irudi hauen gainean  6 erlaitz ditugu non enpresari buruzko informazioa, , ekitaldiak eta lasterketak, berriak, norberaren curriculuma bidaltzeko aukera eta dendei buruzko informazioa aurkezten diren. Erlaitz hauen ondoan dagoen esteka sakatuz sareko dendara bueltatzeko aukera badago.

Bezeroen foroetan publikatutako iritziak kontuan harturik, denda sare honek hainbat gauza on eta txar izan baditu. Alde onak aztertuz; produktuen ugaritasuna eta kalitatea eta baita erosleei tratamendu on bat eskaintzen dela aurki daitezke. Alde txarretan, prezio altuak dira gehienbat erosleen kexen iturri. Baina oro har, gehiengoa ados dago kalitatezko produktua eta erosleenganako jarrera on bat eskaintzen dela. Horrez gain, enpresa honen hedatzeko gaitasuna aipatu eta sortu dien harridura aurkezten dute.

Ondorio lez denda multzo honen lana errespetu handia merezi duela esan daiteke. Estatu mailan asko hedatzeko gai izan da azkeneko urteetan egindako lan onari esker. Bere izena entzutean kalitatea eta tratu egokia etortzen zaizkigu gogora eta baita edozein kirol burutzeko materiala aurki dezakegula.


Los tuareg

Los Tuareg pertenecen al grupo étnico de los bereberes, este pueblo es trashumante y basa su economía a la ganadería. Tiene la organización social de un linaje segmentario, esto es, son un grupo de personas unidas por distintos linajes. Estos distintos linajes tienen dentro del mismo grupo unas posiciones a novel jerárquico distintas, dependiendo del tiempo que lleven dentro del grupo. A pesar que estos grupos exista la idea de clase social, no hay un gobierno centralizado. Para tomar las decisiones que atañen existe la posibilidad de formar un consejo tribal pero este tipo de grupos están liderados por una “Big men”, pero esta figura a la vez tiene unos poderes e influencia muy limitados. En estos clanes no hay manera de obligar a uno de sus miembros a acatar una decisión.

mujer con la cara pintada

mujer tipica de este pueblo nomada

  • La economía de estos grupos es plenamente trashumante, tienen distintos tipos de ganado que van desde ovejas y cabras hasta camellos, viven con los productos que obtienen de estos. Estos distintos productos (leche, carnes, pieles y cueros, queso…), son consumidos por los miembros del grupo a modo de subsistencia o son intercambiados por productos secundarios o por dinero en metálico con otros pueblos. Están especializados en la ganadería, por lo tanto no tienen otro modo de conseguir alimentos. Unidos a sus animales, esenciales para su supervivencia, estas familias están en constante movimiento para hallar nuevos pastos para sus cabezas de ganado. Nunca se quedan más de unos pocos meses en un mismo lugar, semanas en muchas ocasiones.
  • Dentro del grupo, hay distintas clases sociales y su influencia está muy diferenciada. Podemos observar cinco clases sociales muy marcadas; una aristocracia que mantiene el poder; sacerdotes que se ocupan de las ceremonias religiosas; trabajadores que se ocupan de los animales; artesanos que crean todas las herramientas necesarias y en el escalón más bajo, los esclavos negros.
  • El género y la edad son rasgos a tener en cuenta dentro del grupo para medir la influencia de casa uno, aunque practican la religión musulmana también son un pueblo matriarcal, por lo que las mujeres tienen gran influencia dentro del grupo. Dentro del hogar la mujer lleva las riendas de la familia y a la hora de repartir la herencia las mujeres son las que tienen prioridad sobre los hombres.
  • Pero la figura que posee más influencia dentro del grupo es el “big men”, este líder es el hombre más rico de la tribu, ya que posee el mayor número de cabezas de ganado. El utiliza este ganado para mantener a su extensa familia y repartir algo con los de la tribu. Este si quiere que algo se haga, tiene que dar ejemplo y utilizar la persuasión. Para tener influencia dentro de las decisiones solo puede dar consejos, nunca órdenes. Este tirulo no se puede heredar y el portador lo puede perder si su número de cabezas de ganado disminuye o la tribu así lo decide.
  • Las poblaciones de estas familias suelen ser muy reducidas, de unos 250-500 miembros. Suelen tener más animales que personas u estos grupos viven muy distanciados de los otros pueblos.



December 14, 2012 Leave a comment


Ondorengo blog honek Gorbeiako Parke Natural magiko eta liluragarriari buruzko informazio zabala eskaintzen du. Paradisu eder honek hainbat ekintza egiteko aukera ematen du eta gure helburua aukera horiek ondo kudeatzea eta jendea erakartzea da parkeari buruzko informazioa emanez.

Blog honetan gure estrategia garatzeko erreferentzia nagusia “Gorbeia Central Park” webgune edo blog ezaguna  izan da. Horretaz gain, esan beharra daukagu blog hau aurrera ateratzeko “Arratia Suzien” taldearen eta “Arratiako Mankomunitatearen” laguntza izan dugula.

Gorbeiako Parke Naturala Bizkaia eta Araba artean kokatzen da. Parke eder hau, Euskadiko parke natural handiena da 26.050 hektarea dituelarik eta bertako gailurrik garaiena Gorbeia mendia dugu 1481m-rekin. Aldamin 1375m eta Lekanda 1303m-rekin, dira beste gailur garrantzitsu batzuk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Bizkaiko txoko maitagarri hau 1994.  urtean izendatu zuten parke natural bezala ez soilik bere balio naturalarengatik baita bere balio kulturalarengatik bertako herri txikiak kulturaren ondare dira, tradizio eta pentsaera zaharrak ederki mantendu dituzten herritarrez beteak: Bizkaia aldean kokatzen diren herriak Areatza, Zeanuri, Zeberio eta Orozko dira Araban aldiz Zigoitia, Zuia eta Urkabustaiz.

Parke natural honek balore sentimental eta ideologiko handia izateaz aparte aukera bikainak eskaintzen ditu, kirol ezberdinak egiteko aukera adibidez: trekking, eskalada, mountain-bike, espedeologia… herrietako janleku bikainak dastatzeko aukera; Gorostondo, Arratiano, , Axpe Goikoa… uda giroan herrietako jai giroan murgiltzeko aukera, animaliez gozatzeko aukera ….. familiarekin eguna pasatzeko aukera …. .

Lo egiteko leku anitz dituzu edozein herritan baita ingurukoetan ere; Arantza (Igorren),  Hotel Balneario Hesperia… (Areatzan) Hotel Etxegana ( Zeanuri)  eta horretaz gain herri hauek bisitatzeko aukera ederra, herri txikiak izan arren erakargarriak baitira.

Blog honek bere berriak eta ekintza ezberdinak Twitter eta Facebook bezalako sare sozialetan partekatuko ditu jendeak gure berri izan dezan.



Anon, GORBEIA SUZIEN. Available at:


Anon, GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK. Available at:


December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Aurreko astean lagunekin solasaldian ibili nintzenean eta larunbatean Otxandion egon nintzela esatean , derrigor azalpenen bat eman behar izan nuen. Momentu horretan , jendeak Bizkaiko herriei buruz duen ezagupen eza izan zen burura etorri zitzaidan lehenengo ideia. Hori dela eta, herri honen existentzia zabaltzeaz gain, bertara joatea edo gisa honetako beste herri batzuetara joatea bultzatzea dut helburu.Bizkaia_municipalities_Otxandio

Lehenik eta  behin, Arabako mugan dagoen historiaz beteriko herri bizkaitarra da Otxandio. Nahiz eta Arratia-Nerbioi eskualdean kokatuta egon Durangoko Barruti Judizialaren barne dago.Aipatu beharra dago hainbat udalerriekin egiten duela muga, hala nola, Abadiño (iparraldean), Dima ( ipar-mendebaldean), Aramaio (Araba, ekialdean) eta Legutio(Araba, hegoaldean). Biztanleriari dagokionez, herri txikitzat hartu dezakegu, 1277 biztanle baino ez dituelako. Era berean, lurralde zati bat Urkiolako Parke Naturalaren barne izateak xarma berezia aitortzen dio.

Aurretik esan dudan moduan, historia handia biltzen duen herria da. Batik bat,  Gerra Zibilean pairatu zuen bonbardeaketagatik. Hala ere, ez da ahaztu behar 1236 eta 1254 urteen bitartean jaso zuela hiri-gutuna goi-lautadaren eta kantabriar kostaldearen arteko trafikoa bermatuko zuen nukleoa eratzearen xedearekin,gauzatuz. Harrez geroztik, hainbat liskar sortuko ziren, bai gizarte urbanoa eta noblezia urbanoaren artean  bai Aramaio eta Otxandioko jurisdikzioen artean kokatzen den lurraldeari zegokiona, “Limitadua” deitutakoa. Biek lurralde haren jabetza aldarrikatzen zuten eta azkenean Otxandiok egoera hauek saihesteko egin zuen eskritura baten bitartez onartu zitzaion lurraldearen erabilera. Arazo hori konponduta, beste batzuk etorri ziren, hala nola belardien ustiaketena zein XVI eta XVII. mendeetan Otxandiok belardi mankomunitatea lortuko zuen  Aramaio, Dima, Zeanuri eta Arabako Legutiorekin bat. Hala ere liskarrak  berean jarraitzen zuen baina honetan  egur-baliabideen kontrola “Limitaduan” zen arazoa. Honetan ere Otxandiok lortu zuen horren ustiapena beraz, herriko ekonomia horretan gauzatzen zen. Horrek garapen ekonomikoa sustatu zuen baina  alde txarrak ere izan zituen,izan ere, energia beharraren hazkundeak desforestazioa ekarri zuenez baliabideak agortu ziren krisialdi batean murgilduz. Hori dela eta, jendeak hiri industrialetara alde egin zuen. Dena dela, 1920an egoera ekonomiko hobea etorri zen eta demografía hazkunderantz jo zuen. Haatik, oparotasun ekonomikoa 70.hamarkadan heldu zen empresa berriak sortuz. Aipu bezala industriari dagokionez, mundu mailan ospea handia daukan Vicinay empresa Otxandion sortua da.

Bestalde,Gerra Zibila hasi aurretik politikari begira herri lasaia zen baina hura hastean bere kokapen estrategikoa dela eta oso paper garrantzitsua izan zuen. Izan ere, Bizkaiko defentsarako puntu garrantzitsua zen baita altxatutako tropeen aurka egiteko Araban ere. Horrez gain,  Bizkaian sartzeko funtsezkoa zenez  falagistentzat erasotzeko helbururik beharrezkoenetariko bat bihurtu  zen.


Gerra Zibil horretan,  Otxandiok bizitako egunik latzena Uztailaren 22a  izan zen. Herriko jaiak zirelarik, Logroñotik etorritako bi hegazkin hiruzpalau kiloko bonbak bota zituzten 57 hildako eta kolpatu asko ekarriz.Ezustean harrapatu zien herritarreei, frankistek zibilen kontra egiten zuten lehenengo bonbardeaketa izan baitzen hura. Ondorioz, jendeak Otxandiotik ihes egin zuen,batetik, janariaren gabeziagatik eta bestetik, Mola jeneralaren tropak hurbiltzen ari zirelako. Jarraian, zenbait bonbardaketa gehiago pairatu zuten otxandiarrek martxoaren 4koa tragikoenatzat hartuz. Izan ere, 450 miliziano eta gudari hil ziren , 400 atxilotu eta aukera izan zutenek Barazar, Urkiola eta Zumeltzara alde egin zuten, berriro batzeko asmoz. Handik aurrera frankisten menpe geratu zen herria eta  mota askotako jazarpenak pairatu zituzten otxandiarrek.

Esan beharra dago, herriaren historia ez dela Otxandiok erakartzeko duen baliabide bakarra.  Bere ingurugiro naturala dela  eta ingurumenarekin erlazionaturik dauden ekintzak egin daitezke. Izan ere, badira BTT , mendi eta kultur ondare ibilbideak egiteko aukera dexente non zailtasunaren arabera banatuta dauden, hau da, errazak, ertainak eta zailak. Lehenengoa gehienbat umeentzat bideratuta dago. Gainerakoak, aldiz, helduek egiteko aproposak dira.

BTT ibilbideei dagokionez , modu entretenigarri batean herria ezagutzeko aukera paregabea eskaintzen dute. Aurretik esan dudan moduan zailtazunez bananduta dagoenez adina ez da oztopo  hura praktikatzeko .Aipatu beharra dago, zaila alorrean sartuta dauden ibilbideak alboko herrietara joateko aukera ematen dutela adibidez, Ubidera edota Zumeltzara (Dima) .  Haatik, Otxandio herrian dauden auzuneak  eta bertako ondare historikoa ere ezagutzeko abagunea eskaintzen du.

Mendi ibilbideak  BTT  ibilbideak jarraitzen duten antzeko egitura daukate. Zailtasun handienak dituztenak alboko herrietara heltzeko aukera ematen dute , hau da,  Otxandion egoteaz gain, alboko herriak edo mendiak bisitatu ditzakezuzala, kasu honetan, Bizkaiko bi mendi nagusietara heltzeko aukera dago, hau da , Gorbeia eta Anboto. Hala ere, Urkiolara heltzeko parada ematen du ibilbide horrek.

Horrez gain, lasai ibili nahi izatekotan Otxandio herrian bertan hainbat monumento ikusteko aukera eskaintzen duten bi iblbide daude. Batetik, plazatik hasi eta Elizabarri, San Antonio, San Martin eta San Roke baselizatara hurbilduko gaituena eta bestetik, plazan bertakoa Santa Marina Parrokia Eliza errenazentista eta bere dorre barrokotik Udaletxera joanaz, edota Frontoitik Bolaleku eta Pasealekura abiatzea eskeintzen duena.Otxandio_aldezaharra_h

Nire ustez, ibilbide denak dira erakargarri baina esperientziaren ikuspuntutik, lehengo hobe da herria bera bisitatzea eta denbora izatekotan beste ibilbide luzeago bat burutzea. Honekin lortu nahi izan dudana herria ezagutzea, eskeintzen dituen ekintzei buruz konziente izatea eta ingurua ezagutzera bultzatzea dela aitortu beharra dut.  Era berean, alboko herriak, Dima, Ubide, Legutio… kasu antzeko geografia menditsua daukate beraz, Otxandiotik hurbil egonik haiek ere bisitatzea bultzatzen dut.

Bukatzeko aipagarri bezala, nahiz eta urte askotako herria izan teknologia berrietara egokitu da Otxandio, izan ere, facebooken orrialde bat dauka Otxandioko Udala deitutakoa. Bertan, egingo diren ekintzak eta eguneroko berriak azaldutzen dira. Beraz, sare sozialak ere antzinako herrietan funtsezkoak bilakatu direla esan dezakegu. Azkenik,  herri honi buruz informazio gehiago nahi izatekotan, sartzea besterik ez dago.


Otxandioko Udala, Otxandioko Udala. Available at: [Accessed December 5, 2012].

Wikipedia, 2012. Ochandiano. Available at: [Accessed December 5, 2012].

Munduan zehar murgiltzeko beste era bat

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Normalean, jendeari zer duen gustuko duen galdetzean, ia gehienek bidaiatzea dela erantzuten dute. Baina, zenbatero bidaiatzen duten  viaje-por-su-cuentagaldetzean, gutxi batzuk erantzuten dute askotan edo normalean egiten duten gauza dela. Horren zergatia, gehienetan, diru falta izaten da. Horregatik aukeratu dut gai hau; denbora, gogoak eta diru pixkat edukiz gero egin daitekeen gauza bat delako.

Bidaiatzeko hainbat arrazoi daude: leku, jende edota  kultura berriak ezagutzeko, hizkuntza berriak ikasteko … baina hau guztia ahalbidetzeko hainbat modu daude.

Batzuk etxe trukea egiten dute hotelak dakarren gastua aurrezteko. Homeforhome bezalako web orriek ahalbidetzen dituzte trukeak. Baserrietan lan egitearen truke janaria eta lo egiteko lekua lortzen dutenak ere badaude, eta gero eta gehiago zabaltzen dagoen jarduera da.

Beste batzuk aldiz, herrialde batetik bestera bidaiatzeko auto banaketa proposatzen dute,horrela, gastuak bidaiarien  artean elkar banatuz,dirua viajeporelmundoaurrezten dute; Hitchhikers web orrialdearen bidez lotu daiteke hau. Trenez edota autobus bidez ere bidaia merkeak aurkitu daitezke; baina badaude low cost bidaiak ere. Koste gutxiko hegaldien bidez, normalean ordaindu beharreko tasak aurrezten dira, beraz,  bidaia-txartela merkeago eskuratzeko beste modu bat da.

Mundu mailan gehien bisitatzen diren herrialdeak Frantzia, Estatu Batuak, Txina, Espainia, Italia, Turkia, Erresuma Batua, Alemania, Malasia Sin títuloeta Mexiko dira. Europara bakarrik begiratuz gero, Frantzia, Espainia, Italia, Turkia, Erresuma Batua, Alemania, Austria,Errusia, Ukraina eta Grezia dira herrialderik bisitatuenak. Baina zure jomuga bidaiatzea bada, norakoari garrantzi handirik ematen ez badiozu, herrialde merkeenak zeintzuk diren ere begiratzea gomendagarria da. Gaur egun hauek dira Europatik bidaiatzeko lekurik merkeenak:  Albania, Bulgaria, Kroazia, Hungaria, Lituania, Malta, Polonia, Portugal, Errumania eta Turkia.

Bidaia mota hauek edonork egin ditzake. Bidaia honek egiten dituzten pertsonek perfil ezberdina dutenez, bidaia ezberdinak antolatzen dituzte. Batzuk motxila hartu eta mundutik zehar ibiltzen dira abentura bila, beste batzuk bidaiak erlaxatzeko erabiltzen dituzte eta hondartza lasaiak dituzten norakoak bilatzen dituzte. Beste batzuk aldiz, modako hiria bisitatu nahi dute eta berau ezagutzeko ibilbidea prest daramate gero hirian zehar murgiltzeko. Baina guzti hauek gauza bera dute amankomunean, diru gutxirekin bidaian joatea.

turismo-aventura                viaje-para-2-travelgenio                 Robert_Finale_art_paintings_CafeDeParis

Gaur egun, gero eta jende gehiagok aukeratzen ditu bidaia mota hauek, ondo antolatuz gero, ohiko bidaietan egiten denaz eta askoz gauza gehiagoz bereganatu baitzaitezke. Gainera, bidaia antolatzen aurrezten duten diruarekin gero, lasai asko bidaiatzeko aukera izango dute herrialde berri horietan behar denean gastatzeko.

Badaude sare sozialen bidez bidaia liburuak iragartzen dituztenak eta baita mundutik bidaiatzen ahalbidetzen dituzten laguntza taldeak ere. Twitter eta Facebook bezalako sare sozialek, ezagun edo ezezagun diren munduko beste pertsona batzuekin etengabeko harremanetan egoteko aukera ematen dute. Horregatik askok probetxua ateratzen diote honi. Honen bidez, non jan, herrialdetik bidaiatzeko modurik merkeenak zeintzuk diren edota lo egiteko lekuak eskaini edo gomendatzen dituzte.


Interneten honen inguruan hainbat aholku ematen dituzten blogak aurkitu daitezke. Bertan garraiobideei, jakiei edota lo egiteko lekuei buruz irakurri daiteke eta baita bidaiariek izan dituzten bizipenen berri. Horrela, aurrekoek egindako akatsak zuzendu eta bidaia ondo jarraitzeko aukera errazten dizu.

Nire ustez bidaiatzeko modurik onena da, diru pixkat aurreztuz mundua ikusteko aukera eduki daitekeelako. Leku berriak ezagutzeaz gain, beste pertsona batzuekin harremanetan erraz jartzeko aukera ematen dizu, hauek hurbiletik ezagutu eta ondorioz euren  kulturetan errazago murgilduz.

Horregatik, jende guztiari gomendatzen diodan esperientzia da, behintzat bizitzan behin egitekoa. Gustuko izanez gero errepikatzekoa eta gustuko izan ezean … lagun zein familia artean kontatzeko anekdota.

Beraz, ez pentsatu gehiago, egin maletak eta munduan zehar murgildu!



HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT as the current key-asset

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

William R. Tracey, defines Human Resources as: “The people that staff and operate an organization … as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. The organizational function that deals with the people …”. I am going to deal with Human Resources topic in this post because of two reasons: because is one of my favorite subjects and also because I have chosen this Knowledge Area to make my TFG.( Trabajo fin de Grado) in order to complete my degree in Deusto University.

human r 1

Human Resources have enormously developed in the last three decades; from “personnel as the field beyond paying employees and managing employee benefits” statement. The evolution made verbal the fact that people are an organization’s most important resource. People are an asset that must be hired, satisfied and developed.
Even the long used term itself (Human Resources), relegates humans to the same category as financial and material resources, we can foresee that human resources will be replaced by more people and organization friendly terms in the near future, because they are becoming more and more important in the Company’s performance.

Relayed to human resources, three main fields are typically considered:

1. Demography: the characteristics of the workforce (Population), for example, age, gender, culture, race or social class.

2. Diversity: The variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of “baby-boomers”, women at any level of responsibility or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago.

3. Skills and qualifications: As industries move from manual to more managerial professions the need for more highly skilled graduates arise.

4. Management system: Human resources management method has noticeably changed as we can appreciate in the illustration bellow. The mission/focus has changed from the Control/Alignment to Speed/Customers and the HR’s function is by far different to this that rules nowadays.

Globalization shaped the world for almost three decades starting from the end of the 1970’ technologies have developed remarkably, the world has expanded continuously, the current system require many diverse professions and the need for human resources at all sides has increased : in the quantity and the quality aspects.
Starting from the last quarter of 2008 however the world economy entered a dramatic Crisis Period and Here is where the HR are playing a key role in the Companies, it has turn into an strategic Asset; when precisely the main part of the other assets have decreased swiftly.

human r 2

Strategic management of Human Resources has an increased interest and this interest has resulted in various organizational functions becoming more concerned with their role in the Strategic Management Process (SMP). Strategic management is “the art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable organization to achieve its objectives” (David, 2007). Strategic management process has been developed since 1950’s, and this process is still in practice today in the business world especially during uncertain economic environments, like the one we are suffering now.

On top of that, this technique is being so successful that has been designed with the acronym: Strategic human resources management SHRM “is the organizational system designed to achieve sustainable competitive advantage through people. SHRM involves the development of a consistent, aligned collection of practices, programs and policies to facilitate the achievement of the organization’s strategic objectives” (Mello, 2002:100). The main concept of SHRM is that all initiatives which entail how people are managed need to be aligned with and in the employees support.

To conclude, as a consequence of the ever-increasing greedy competition in that Globalized world and the economic plight we are immersed in, competitiveness of the organization is the basic condition for their survival and Human Resources seem to be the key to achieve this state.

1-Ender ASYALI, Yusuf ZORBA, A.Güldem CERIT, O.Kamil SAG,Global economic crisis and the impact on human resources
Strategies for seafers:

Click to access showcontent0007.pdf

2-Human Resources web-page,retrieved 5-12-12:

These are very well-written blong I have inspired on:

3-Elena Méndez Díaz-Villabella, Escrito el 3 mayo 2012 en Mercado laboral, Política de RRHH, Retrieved 4-12-12::

4-Alberto Andreu en el 7 diciembre 2011, Retrieved 4-12-12:

Teen Pregnancy

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Nowadays, we are all very conscious about teen pregnancy as it is a very common issue in our society. As fortunately or unfortunately, most of us know cases where young girls have became pregnant.

Whenever a person becomes pregnant there are several options to be considered and one of them is the abortion.

Therefore I would like to give out some facts about abortions according to

“Number of abortions per year: Approximately 42 Million (2003) and the number of abortions per day: Approximately 115,000”

Moving on to analyze the teen pregnancy in the United States, it is worth mentioning, that, the U.S. has the highest teen pregnancy rate in the industrialized world. For instance the rate in The United States is ten times higher than in Switzerland. It is also said that Nevada has the highest birth rate e pregnant at least once before they’re 20.

This is a link in which it is possible to check the percentages of teenage pregnancy in the any State of the United States.

There is also some statistics of why women have abortions. And according to “it is estimated that 1% of all abortions occur because the girls are raped or it has been incest. Another, 6% of abortions occurs because of health problems regarding either the mother or child, and finally, 93% of all abortions occur for instance, if the child is unexpected or inconvenient”.

Even if abortion is legal in most of the countries worldwide, there are still some other countries in which abortion is illegal.

France – Legalized
Britain – Legalized
Switzerland – Legalized
Denmark – legalized
Hungary – Legalized
Romania – Legalized
Poland – Illegal
Italy – Legalized
Colombia – Illegal
Peru – Illegal
Mexico – Illegal
Russia – Legalized
United States – Legalized
China -Legalized
Australia – Legalized
Brazil – Illegal

There´s a really show in MTV called teen moms that shows how difficult it is to be a teenager and to rise a baby. In this show, there are four main characters Maci, Farrah, Catelynn and Amber that will show teenagers that rising up a baby is difficult but not impossible.


Maci has to take care of Bentley, take online courses at the local college, and keep her relationship with the baby’s father.Therefore, she gets fed up with Ryan when he does not help her with the child. She has gone back to college to study journalism because she wants to write a book about her experience being sixteen and pregnant. She also speaks at local high schools to talk about teen pregnancyto conscience other teenagers.


Farrah is the mother of Sophia. Unfortunately, Sophia’s father was killed in a car accident before Sophia´s birth. Moreover, Farah’s mother was charged with assault for hitting her. Due to the fight with her mom, Farrah and Sophia move into an apartment. She sees a therapist to discuss the rocky relationship with her family, as well as dealing with her emotions regarding her boyfriend´s death. Farrah proves to her ex boyfriend´s family through a paternity test that he was indeed Sophia’s father. This was faced with a lawsuit by the father´s mom for grandparent visitation rights despite they had no previous contact with Sophia.


Catelynn is the birth-mother of Carly but she decided to give her in adoption. Catelynn moves back home with her parents, but she sees that her stepfather, who is also the father of her boyfriend Tyler, is not over her decision to place her daughter for adoption. Moreover, Catelynn has problems to face she is a birth mother.  But later, she moves in with her boyfriend and his mother and gets engaged to Tyler. Catelynn shows that there are more opportunities even once the baby is born.


Amberis the mother of Leah Leann Shirley; she tries to parent Leah, and the same time stay with her fiancé Gary. When she found out that she was pregnant Amber decided to leave high school. However, now is working on obtaining her GED. She has many troubles with her baby’s father, Gary. Furthermore, the problems led to physical violence and therefore, Amber gets arrested.

These are some links for those who are interested on watching some videos about these four girls’ daily lives:

All the information and facts appeared during this text are all from these blogs:





Categories: Uncategorized

Munich and Christmas

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment



With this post, I want you to explain a little bit a topic which is related with Christmas. Here, I tell my experience in Munich and its Christmas Markets, giving different details and encouraging people to visit the wonderful city of Munich.

Three years ago I visited by this period of time one city that personally I love it; this city was Munich. Munich is the capital of Bavaria in south Germany and it is famous because of the Beer Celebration “Oktoberfest” and because it is the capital of the well-know  car factory of BMW and the headquarter of “Bayern München” football team. But, the first time, when I visited the city, I only enjoyed visiting the incredible Christmas Market of the city that my German teacher had encouraged me to visit one year before.

The Munich Christmas Market is not the only one in Germany,also there are other Christmas Markets  Central Europe, but it is the oldest Christmas Market of Germany. The tradition of this event set out in XIV century, although the form of today´s market started in 1972. On the other hand, the main Christmas Market of Munich is in the city centre, in Marienplatz, even if all city is decorated and in all areas are different and more familiar Christmas Markets.

The name of the market is “Christkindlmarkt” because it refers to the Jesus Baby, and we have to remember that we are in a very Catholic part of Germany. Apart from that, this character is the character that brings the presents to children in South-Germany, Austria and Switzerland. By this time of the year, people who visit Munich will be able to enjoy listening fantastic choruses of children in markets, but also in anywhere, for instance in “Frauenkirche” Cathedral, or in the streets of the Bavarian capital city.Chistmas Market

But, what can we say about different foods? Not only in Germany are sausages, sauerkraut or knuckle, there are other ingredients, other flavors in German gastronomy, and this period of time is a really good time to try out with other recipes of the Germanic country. For example, in Munich, in Christmas and in other cities of Germany, is very typical the “Glühwine”, also the typical Christmas biscuits, chocolates, and so on. On the night, the city become into a spectacular landscape of lights whose central element is a fir tree in the centre of Council Square (Marienplatz) and in front of the “Altrathaus”. What it´s more, if you want, you have the opportunity to visit different nativity scenes in streets of the city; there is as well a market where is specializing in Bethlehem figures.

I have to say that I was only once in winter, in Germany, but I know that there are other different Christmas Markets, for instance in “Köln” (Cologne), where there are other four different Christmas Markets. But, only two are deserved to be visited obligatorily: “Am Dom” near the famous cathedral and the other one: “Alter Market” where the activity is frenetic.
On the hand, and in the same region where Munich is, we have Nuremberg and its Christmas Market. Here, there is an ancient tradition which it consist on a solemn opening of the market. The “Christkind” offers a speech and the market start.

In any case, visit Germany in winter can be a wonderful option to have contact with the old tradition of Christmas Markets. Here we don´t have this kind of tradition, since the markets were an invention against the winter´s cold, so if we want to try out the Christmas spirit, Munich our city. But we have to remember that the majority of markets are usually closed to the Christmas Day.


-El mercado de Navidad de Munich. (2009).Viajeros Barceló. Retrieved from

-Gómez, J. (n.d.). El Mercadillo de Navidad en Munich. Sobreturismo. Retrieved from

-Munguía, I. (2009). Los mejores mercados de Navidad en Europa. Diario del viajero. Retrieved from

Categories: Arts, Uncategorized Tags: , ,

Germanic Mythology

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Germanic mythology is a general term that include all the religions and myths of the people in the area of actual Germany, Anglo-saxon and nordic zones. Germanic mythology ultimately derives from Indo-European Mythology, also known as Indo-Germanic mythology, but I am not going to focus that far. Anyway, all the gods of scandinavia people are the same as the germanics, the only thing that change is the name and their roles (but just a bit), but this also happened in all mythologies through the years.

One particularity of the Germanic gods is that they can not scape from their destiny, and they are seized to the same penalties that the humans have, and they are either bad and good people enchained to their passions.

In the following post Iam going to name the main gods of germanic mythology, who are the same of viking mythology.

First of all we have Wodanaz, better know as Odín, the names as I said have evolved through the years. He is the ruler of200px-Georg_von_Rosen_-_Oden_som_vandringsman,_1886_(Odin,_the_Wanderer) Asgard, the land of the gods, he is also the god of euphoria and the god of the killed in battle warriors. He is represente as a one-eye old man, riding his eight-legged horse Sleipnir, the fastest in the world, and holding his lance Gungnir, that once has been thrown is unstoppable. The nords believe that if they died in combat bravely, afterdeath they will be waiting the Ragnarok (end of the world) in the Valhalla.

Þunraz (read Thunraz), also called Thor, is the son of Odín and the protector of midgard, the land that is occupied by the human race. He is the strongest warrior in whole Asgard and therefore of all the worlds. He is the god of thunder, lighting and storms. His mortal enemy is the colossal serpent called Jormundur, that surrounds the limits of midgard. In the Ragnarok, Thor will  fight with it and killed it, but he will die because of the wounds.

Teiwaz or Tyr is the god of war and sky. He was supposed to be the main god of the germanic culture, but he was replaced by Odin in some later time. He is portrayed as a one-handed man, lost when the gods cheated the giant wolf Fenrir when they enchain him. Tyr is 514px-John_Bauer-Tyr_and_Fenrirdestined to kill and be killed by Garm, the guard dog of Hel, actually the word “hell” comes from here. Here in the right, we have an art of the myth of Tyr and Fenrir.

Frigg is the mayor goddess in the nord paganism. She is the wife of Odin and therefore, the queen of Asgard. She is said to have the power of prophecy. This is an attribute that was expanded to all the women of germanic societies. Women´s advices were very valued. She is the goddess of the birth and was associated to married women. By the way, in the pieces of documents of the Ragnarok it is not say what happen with the goddess so it is supposed that they survived to the destruction.

Another very important goddess is Freyja, she was associated to love, beauty, fertility, seidr (sorcery), gold and death. It is said that Frigg and Freyja were the same goddess at the beginning, but this, like a lot of things changed through the years.

Loki, the trickster. He is not exactly a god, because he doesnt recieve cult, but he is a deity and he is very important in the nordic and germanic mythology. He embody the figure of the trickster, the one that always is complicating all the things. It is in her nature. We can find these figure in toher cultures, like in northamerica, represented by the coyote. After the dead of Baldr, the beloved son of Odin, he was punished to be enchained to a rock and to suffer the poison of a snake spilling in her face. It was said that the earthquakes were provoked by Loki when he twist of pain because of the poison. He is also the father of Fenrir and Jormundur, the ones that will destroy a big part of the world in the Ragnarok. The Ragnarok will begin when Loki were set free of their chains.

Besides the gods and the humans, there are also other “creatures” like the giants, that live in the world of Iotumheim, the elves, that live in Alfheim, tuergos, dwarves, trolls, etc. They live in other worlds, hanging in the Yggdrasil, the tree of life. The giants are very important in the nordic mythology, lots of the gods have giant blood running in their veins and in the Ragnarok the frozen giants will be the main part of Loki´s army.

The Ragnarok, or god´s destiny, it´s the apocalypsis in the norse mythology. Thanks to one völva (a female witch) Odín knows waht is going to happen in the Ragnarok, he knows that is going to happen, it is the destiny of the gods, but he doesnt know when. When Loki be set in free of his torturing punishment, he is going to begin the war against the gods. Heimdall the watcher god will saw the armies of Loki crossing the Midgard sea in order to destroy the world. A huge battle will be between Asgard´s armies, composed by the valhalla warriors, the gods and the creatures that support Asgard and the Loki´s army, builded with the enemies of the gods, the giants and the terrorific monsters, Fenrir the wolf, and Jormundur the Serpent. World will be destroyed, but two humans and some gods will survive the Ragnarok and they will create a new world.



Enrique Bernardez “Los mitos germánicos”, año 2002, alianza editorial

Norse mythology,

Categories: Humanities, Uncategorized

8 mile

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

8 mile; produced by Universal Pictures and Imagine Entertainment, is an American dramatic film directed by Curtis8 Mile-03 Hanson (L.A. Confidential) and starring Eminem, Kim Basinger, Mekhi Phifer, Taryn Manning and  Brittany Murphy.

The film tells the story about Jimmy Smith Jr.; who is called B. Rabbit by his friends. He, who loves hip-hop music, lives in Detroit, in a poor and predominantly black population. Read more…


Este artículo trata de Las Danzas vascas. Son importantes ya que desempeñan un gran papel en la sociedad y cultura vasca desde hace muchos años. Para ello, es considerable analizar su historia y las distintas danzas que podemos encontrar.

Las Danzas vascas (en euskera Euskal Dantzak) son una parte fundamental en la cultura vasca. Cada provincia, o territorio histórico, consta de sus propias danzas y también, cada pueblo  tiene su propia danza la cual es frecuente ver en sus fiestas o en acontecimientos importantes que se den.  Muchas de estas danzas son tan antiguas que no se sabe cual puede ser su verdadero origen. Otras, sin embargo, son nuevas coreografías con base popular. Read more…

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