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GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

fitipaldi

Ondorengo blog honek Gorbeiako Parke Natural magiko eta liluragarriari buruzko informazio zabala eskaintzen du. Paradisu eder honek hainbat ekintza egiteko aukera ematen du eta gure helburua aukera horiek ondo kudeatzea eta jendea erakartzea da parkeari buruzko informazioa emanez.

Blog honetan gure estrategia garatzeko erreferentzia nagusia “Gorbeia Central Park” webgune edo blog ezaguna  izan da. Horretaz gain, esan beharra daukagu blog hau aurrera ateratzeko “Arratia Suzien” taldearen eta “Arratiako Mankomunitatearen” laguntza izan dugula.

Gorbeiako Parke Naturala Bizkaia eta Araba artean kokatzen da. Parke eder hau, Euskadiko parke natural handiena da 26.050 hektarea dituelarik eta bertako gailurrik garaiena Gorbeia mendia dugu 1481m-rekin. Aldamin 1375m eta Lekanda 1303m-rekin, dira beste gailur garrantzitsu batzuk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Bizkaiko txoko maitagarri hau 1994.  urtean izendatu zuten parke natural bezala ez soilik bere balio naturalarengatik baita bere balio kulturalarengatik bertako herri txikiak kulturaren ondare dira, tradizio eta pentsaera zaharrak ederki mantendu dituzten herritarrez beteak: Bizkaia aldean kokatzen diren herriak Areatza, Zeanuri, Zeberio eta Orozko dira Araban aldiz Zigoitia, Zuia eta Urkabustaiz.

Parke natural honek balore sentimental eta ideologiko handia izateaz aparte aukera bikainak eskaintzen ditu, kirol ezberdinak egiteko aukera adibidez: trekking, eskalada, mountain-bike, espedeologia… herrietako janleku bikainak dastatzeko aukera; Gorostondo, Arratiano, , Axpe Goikoa… uda giroan herrietako jai giroan murgiltzeko aukera, animaliez gozatzeko aukera ….. familiarekin eguna pasatzeko aukera …. .

Lo egiteko leku anitz dituzu edozein herritan baita ingurukoetan ere; Arantza (Igorren),  Hotel Balneario Hesperia… (Areatzan) Hotel Etxegana ( Zeanuri)  eta horretaz gain herri hauek bisitatzeko aukera ederra, herri txikiak izan arren erakargarriak baitira.

Blog honek bere berriak eta ekintza ezberdinak Twitter eta Facebook bezalako sare sozialetan partekatuko ditu jendeak gure berri izan dezan.

 

ERREFERENTZIAK:

Anon, GORBEIA SUZIEN. Available at: http://gorbeiasuzien.blogspot.com.es/.

Anon, ARRATIAKO MANKOMUNIATETA. Available at: http://www.arratia.net/eu-ES/Orrialdeak/default.aspx.

Anon, GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK. Available at: http://www.gorbeiacentralpark.com/es/.

New Zealand history

December 13, 2012 Leave a comment

There are many historical aconteciments in New Zealand which are the most important happenings for the development of the Australian country.

NEW-ZEALAND Read more…

Categories: History

Free topic post: “Trikitixa, a closer look”

December 13, 2012 Leave a comment

I sincerely believe that music grants a deep sense of fullfillment, one that improves life to limitless extents. This, though, is no wonder, since I am a musician myself -it would be rather counter-productive to go against the guild, dont you think?-. My most cherished instrument -of the few I own- is called “trikitixa”, a diathonic accordion typicial of the basque country, whose characteristic sound you must have surely heard. My intention with this post is to enlighten the reader with some deeper understanding of the instrument itself, the way it works, and some personal impressions.

Let us start with some history: The trikitixa is actually a variation of the diathonic button accordion, which has its roots in italy (incidentally, the main manufacturers are italian). Its “Diathonic” nature makes each an incredibly complicated product of luthiery, and thus they are quite costly, but, on the ther hand, if properly taken care of, they can outlast their owners. Because of this, it is not infrequent for the most veteran (and succesful) players to sport real vintages, antique models handed down from generation to generation in their families.

trikitixa models from 1942

Here are some of the best trikitilaris of the past century, with models of the time.
Image taken from: http://www.absolutbilbao.com/festival-internacional-de-trikitixa-de-getxo/ (accessed: 19.20 13/12/2012)

The diathonic accordion was introduced in the late 19th century by french and italian sailors and/or railway workers, in a time its use was extending all over europe. The trikitixa was developed as the originals suffered some small modifications in tone and bass-notes (and later on the 20th century, also by adding 4 altered notes). It consists of two keyboards and a bellow; the one for the right hand bears individual sounds and the one in the left, chords in different octaves. The sounds are made when the air (either stored in the bellow or from the outside) is made to go through dual windpipes each containing a thin metal sheet, which are sealed in one side so as to isolate notes. These windpipes are covered by a plug connected to its corresponding button through a small lever, thus allowing to play one note at a time, or any combination wanted (so long as the harmonics allow it).

Description of each section with complementary images here.

Traditionally, it has been assotiated with folk music from the basque country, being present in most of the traditional song types (specially “fandango”, “arin-arin”, and “kopla”), and frequently played accompanied by a “pandero” (a hand-percutted frame-drum), though from the late seventies onwards it has been increasingly paired with unorthodox instruments so as to include it in many other genres (pop, rock, jazz, and so on). Here are some examples of the “old” and the “modern” songs:

“Odolaren boza” – Traditional march.

“Kalanbreak” – Pop-rock song by Gozategi.

Personally, I think that it is a complicate instrument to play. It is an acquired taste, one that requires constant practice lest the player get rusty and the fingers sloppy, and there have been cases of people quitting out of sheer frustration. Nevetheless, once it gets to you, it is enormously satisfactory to play it, because of the challenge it suposses. I’ve been playing it for 12 years already, and I still have vast amounts to learn, so that should give you a pretty accurate idea of how tough it is.

And that’s it. I hope you enjoyed it.

Media and references:

A really special lighthouse

The emblematic Tower of Hercules is not only the symbol of A Coruna (Galicia), the city where it is placed, but the oldest lighthouse of the world that is still working. Its beautiful facade, its story and the unique views that can be obtained from the top of the Tower, make it receive thousands of visitors every year. In addition, this lighthouse is also famous for having been declared World Heritage site. Read more…

Categories: Arts, History

Basque Mythology

December 11, 2012 1 comment

Basque Mythology has survived in the Basque Country since prehistory. The basque people have always had a strong own culture and  language, but later, their rites and beliefs were influenced by the Roman Empire and the Christianity.

The main deity in the Basque Mythology is Amalurra. The Earth is considered as the source that gives life to all beings and it is said that it holds many treasures inside.

Another impanbotoortant divinity in the Basque Mythology is the goddess Mari. She lives in   all the basque mountaintops and her most important dwelling is the Anboto´s cave, therefore she is called The Lady of Anboto, too. Mari represents the nature and the supreme ethical power. She can appear as a beautiful woman, as an animal, as a tree or as a weather phenomenon. It is said that Mari crosses the sky as a bright light to go to the Txindoki mountain from the Anboto. Her movements have a great influence in the weather and when she is in the Anboto is the time of raining and when she is in another mountain the weather is sunny.

The partner of Mari is Maju or Sugar. He is a darker god and he can appear as a man or as a snake or a dragon. He lives in other caves such as Amunda, Baltzola or Atarreta. He has two sons: Mikelatz (represents evil) and Atarabi (represents good). Maju was related with the Princess of Mundaka and it is said that  Jaun Zuria, the first mythological Lord of Biscay, was the result of this relationship.

Another divinity with great relevance is Eguzki Amandre, the Sun. She gives us the light and the heat and has the power to eliminate all the bad geniuses and the darkness. In many legends the Sun is considered as the God´s eye and a very extended tradition is to put an Eguzkilore (flower of the sun) in the doors of the houses to keep away the bad spirits. More information about the Eguzkilore.

Ilargi Amandre is the divinity of the Moon. She is considered as the God´s face and the light of the dead people. The last important deity is Urtzi, the Sky. It is said that this divinity has been influenced by the Norse mythology because of his similarity with the God Thor.

Apart from the divinities there are a lot of geniuses and elves. Some of them are:

  • Basajaun: He is the Lord of the Forests. He is represented as a big man covered of hair with a claw-shaped foot. He helps the shepherds with their flocks and is a master of many crafts.
  • Lamia: She is similar to the sirens or the nymphs. She is represented as a beautiful woman waist up but with flippers, hooves or fishtail depending on the zone where the lamia lives. Her favourite activity is to comb her long hair withbasajaun a golden comb. She helps the humans when they need help but she can also be very evil if she doesn´t get what she wants.
  • Jentilak: They were the first settlers of the Basque Country. They were very big and strong and could launch boulders great distances. With the arrival of Christianity they had to move to remote areas and they disappeared.
  • Sorginak: They are female and evil geniuses sometimes. They could be priestesses of Mari. On Friday evening they celebrate the Akelarre, which was a meeting to worship the genius Akerbeltz.
  • Tartalo: Is a terrifying cyclop who eats men and works as a pastor. It has a big influence from the greek mythology.
  • Olentzero: He was a jentil but with the arrival of the Christianity it was adapted to the new religion. He was related with the time of the winter solstice and the burning of all the old things. Nowadays, he brings presents to the people announcing the birth of Christ and brings coal to those who have misbehaved.
  • Iratxoak: They are elves that make mischiefs for the humans. The can appear in many different forms of animals or goblins. They are related to the ferns and they live in caverns and wells.

There are so much geniuses in the Basque Mythology and there are a lot of legends and stories about them such as the Galtxagorris, the legend of Martin Txiki or the Greedy Lamia. One of the most important writers and researchers was J.M Barandiaran, who wrote several books about the Basque Mythology. Nowadays, it is becoming more popular because of the foundation of some museums such as the JM Barandiaran of Ataun Museum and the Mythological Park of Mungia.

To sum up, I would say that the Basque Country has a rich mythology that has been influenced by many countries such as the nordic or the romans. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Basque Mythology is that is matriarchal, and the female divinities are more than the male. It is very ancient and, like all mythology, contains a deep and complex meaning, therefore, I think that it is very interesting and it is a good idea to make it more known.

Bibliography:

Egyptian Mythology

Egyptian mythology is composed of many gods and goddesses that Egyptians worshiped, million years ago.  For many of them temples and palaces were built, in exchange for favors. There were five group of gods in which Egyptians believed. Blue words linked you to know more about the topic.

The word mythology is composed of words   Mytos and  Logos .Mythology started with the first civilizations, according to the religion of each place. It was composed of myths, narratives that gave explanation for human existence. There are many mythologies over time and space, but this time we will focus only on the Egyptian, which is long and complex. The period in which this religion lived, was among the Prehistoric Period (5500 – 4000 BC) and Christianity. (535 A.C)Map

Egypt is located on the brooks of the middle and lower channel of the Nile River, but it is not nowadays Egypt .It has three periods of splendor: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Empire. But, the mythology only experimented two: the first, predynastic, here the principal gods and goddess were created. The second was when people were grouped into two lands, the Upper and Lower Egypt.It was when some gods took more relevance than others, depending on the city.

The main gods are organized into five groups:

The Ennead of Heliopolis. “Souls of Thoth” Heliopolis was a city of Lower Egypt. The gods that were completed this Ennead are:

Ra

Ra

Atum: “Which exists by itself”, was the first god who was associated with the sun, and the creator of other gods and goddess. Then he became in another god called Ra, who is more known, but between them there was a difference,  Atum  was represented by sun and  Ra  by the sun and at its zenith. It was also the god who took the dead to heaven and used to live in a cave in the form of eel. This god was associated with some animals like the lion, the bull, lizard or the snake. He was represented as a man with a double crown, sometimes as an old man with a beard or a man with animal head.

Shu: He is the god of light and wind, thanks to his power in the wind ​​it made easier to raise the dead to heaven. He appears as a man with an ostrich feather on his head and in one hand he holds a scepter or an ankh, or as a man with one knee or holding the sky with his hands, the four pillars supporting the sky at the four cardinal points were called “pillars of Shu”.

Tefnut: Her name is composed by EFT (wet) and Nut (sky) words it that the reason for which she is the goddess of moisture. She is represented as a lioness-headed woman and in her hand takes the scepter and the ankh.

Nut: She is the goddess of the sky and creator of everything that composes it .She was also the daughter of Shu and Tefnut, and Gebs sister, who is her husband. Is the mother of gods who complete the Ennead, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth and Horus . She is represented with horns and disk of Hathor, holding in his hand a papyrus scepter and the symbol of “life” or as a cow, or a pot on his head and the hieroglyphic symbol of heaven.

Geb: He was the god of the land’s surface and of the inside, where the graves were, so it was very important to the book of the dead. It is represented as a man of dark green skin, colors that represent the land of the Nile, its vegetation and life, with the crown of Lower Egypt.

Isis: “Great magician” the queen of the gods and goddess of motherhood, children and family in general. She is shown as a woman with a throne on her head.

Osiris: He is the father of Horus, and husband of Isis. Represents the resurrection, fertility, vegetation and  agriculture. Osiris is represented as a mummified man because his brother Seth (who represented evil) killed him and threw into the Nile. Isis was his wife and who recovered and resurrected him. This myth shows how as good overcomes evil.

isis

Isis

Nefti: symbolizes the darkness, the night, the invisible and the death. She is represented as a woman with the hieroglyph of her name as a crown. Sometimes she takes horns with the solar disk. She had many other ways, also represented her with a pair of wings, because it helped Isis ( her sister) bring the dead to afterlife.

Seth: He is the god of brute force, of the tumultuous, the uncontainable, what is not good and darkness. Seth was the god of storms, war and violence, was also take part in the production of the oasis.

The Ogdoad of Hermopolis: It consisted of several god: Num, Nunet, Heh, Hehet, Ket, Keket, Amonet.. . But the most important is Amon, It is represented as a man with two large feathers on his head. He is the god of the occult. He was a god who could not be seen by   mortals or gods. Also had the power of the wind,  so it was very important for navigation. Eventually he merged with the god Ra, becoming in Amon – Ra. RA was the  god who  created the sky, the sun and could create life.Is  depicted as a man with the head of Alcon, with a solar disk crown.

The triad Elephantine: Elephantine is an island in Egypt where they worshiped three gods: Khnum, Satis and Anuket. The most important was the first .Was a  man with a ram’s head wearing an ankh and a scepter. He was the god of fertility, the water and the underworld. It was also a potter, and that shaped the destiny of the Egyptians.

The triad of Thebes, the gods were amon , mut and khonsu, but the most important was Amon

The Triad of Memphis is formed by Path, Sekhmet and Nefertum. The principal was path.

These are not the unique gods but they are the most representatives. It is necessary to give three more names, because they were important for the ancient Egypt’s.

Bastet: The goddess of happiness represented with Head-cat. Cats were worshiped throughout Egypt.Anubis:God of the death, represented with dog-headed Egyptian ankh and scepter. Maat: Goddess of justice and  truth

As we can see Egyptian mythology is very complex and was undergoing changes over the years. But while religion is a complex rich in myths through art of the time achieved last until today, that is still being studied at a time that is very appreciated by historians.

Biblipgraphy:

Julia Pérez Esteban

The Berlin Wall

December 3, 2012 Leave a comment

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WALL

In 1961, 3 million people went from Eastern Germany to the capitalism. German Democratic Republic noticed that the population was going down, so it decided to built a provisinal wire wall on 12th August 1961. It was a 155 km long wall, which divided the city in two sides. No-one could pass through it, not even the public transport. During next days the wall went from being made of wire to be made of bricks. It reached 4 m tall. At the same a ditch was built in order to prevent the crossing to both sides of the city. That ditch was called “the death strip”. The wall was guarded 24 hours every day by militars.

WHILE STANDING

In between 1961 and 1989 more tha 5,000 people people tried to cross the wall. 3,000 people were arrested and about 100 died trying to cross it.

THE FALL OF THE WALL

When the frontiers between Austria and Hungary were opened May 1989, the wall lost its aim because Germans increasingly seeking asilum in Hungary. The massive mobilization sparked demonstration at Alexanders square. This demonstrations achieved that the German Democratic Republic allowed the crossing to the other side of the city. A lot of people crowded the check points of the Wall. The following day cracks were opened in the wall, and there it began the end of the wall.

Categories: History

¿Cuál es tu asignatura favorita?

June 21, 2012 Leave a comment

Responder a la pregunta ¿Cual es tu asignatura favorita? Puede parecer muy fácil, pero no lo es. Ya que hay muchas cosas que valorar antes de poder elegir.Si los temas que se han dado te gustan,o como lo ha explicado el profesor,etc. pero que hace que una asignatura sea mas de tu agrado que otra.

En este caso podría decir que mi asignatura favorita de este curso ha sido Historia del Arte.Tanto por su contenido como por todo el partido que he podido sacar de ella aplicandolo a la vida cotidiana ya que desde que dimos la asignatura no es la misma visión la que tenia antes sobre una iglesia o un edificio.

Hemos dado temas muy variados desde la prehistoria hasta el renacimiento pasando por otros muchos estilos.En la prehistoria dimos las pinturas y las primitivas tumbas de nuestros antepasados.También para reforzar este tema

pudimos asisitir al museo aqueologico de Bilbao.

También pasamos por otras etapas artisiticas.El arte cretense,el arte egipcio,el arte griego…Este último junto con el romano pudimos verlo mas de cerca en una excursión a el Museo de Reproducciones Artísticas de Bilbao que fué muy interesante de ver.Ya que pudimos ver copias de esculturas muy famosas de cerca y aprender mas de ellas.

Nos detuvimos en el arte románico aprendiendo las características de estas iglesias y su escultura.Pero aún mas en el arte gótico haciendo un trabajo sobre  un edificio de arte gótico en Bilbao o zonas cercanas. Acercándonos no solo al arte gótico sino a edificios que tenemos cercanos a nosotros pudiéndolos apreciar de otra manera,y entendiéndolos a través de su iconografía,escultura etc.

Finalmente dimos el arte renacentista y el manierismo acercándonos  mas a Italia donde se desarrolló y a grandes artistas como Miguel Ángel.Teniendo una última excursión a el Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao en el que vimos desde pinturas románicas hasta renacentistas y flamencas.

Hego Poloaren konkista

Roald Amundsen norvegiarrak Hego Polora heldu zen orain dela ehun urte, 1911ko abenduaren 14an, eta kontatzeko bueltatu zen. Bere lehiakidea, Robert Falcon Scott britaniarrak , Lurreko puntu australenera heldu zen hilabete bat geroaago baina bueltako bidean, gosea, neketasuna eta temperatura baxuak bera eta bere laguntzaileekin amaitu zuen. Hauek bi espedizio bihurtu ziren.

“Abenduaren 14ko goizean, sekulako eguraldia egiten zuen, guztia Polora heltzeko prestatutako egongo balitza bezala. Ez nago guztiz ziur, baina gosaria ohiz baino arinago jan genuela uste dut eta hortik gutxira dendatik atera ginen.”  Roald Amundsen esploratzaile norvegiarrak 1911ko abenduaren 14 horretan seinale onarekin altxatu zen, bere egunerokoan kontatzen duen bezala.

Egun hartan, bere bidelagun ziren Olav Bjaaland, Oskar Wisting, Sverre Hassel eta Helmer Hanssen-ekin batera Hego Polora heltzen zen lehen pertsona bihurtuko zela konbentzituta zegoen. Amundsen ez zegoen erratuta eta, ordu batzuk geroago, arratsaldeko hiruretan, 54 eguneko bidaia eta gero, Hego Polora iritsi ziren.

Amundsen-ek beti izan zuen Ipar Polora joateko ametsa, horregatik gaztetatik oso gogor entrenatu zen, baina 1909ko irailean, Robert Peary aurreratu zitzaiola jakin zuenean, bere helmuga Lurreko puntu australenera guztiz aldatu zuen.

“De pequeño, ya sabia que queria ser explorador y se fue formando para lograrlo. Su familia tenia una naviera, pero se enrolo como marinero ene l barco de otra compañia para aprender el oficio desde abajo. Dormia con la ventana abierta y en el suelo para acostrumbrarse al frio y se impuso un programa de preparacion fisica para estar en la mejor forma posible. Era un explorador muy adelantado para su epoca” (Javier Cacho, idazle eta zientzialaria, Amundsen-Scott, duelo en la Antartida. La carrera al polo sur  Ed Forcola.)

Aurkako taldea, Robert Falcon Scott militar britainiarrak burutua, baita ere lortu zuen baina hilabete bat geroago, 1912ko urtarrilaren 17an, eta bueltako bidean bizia galdu zuten ibilbide bihurgunetsu baten ostean.

“¡Se ha producido una catastrofe!; ¡Amundsen y sus noruegos nos han precedido! La decepcion es garnde; me conduelo sobre todo por mis valientes compañeros” idatzi zuen Scottek bere egunerokoetan (Diario del Polo Sur, Iterfolio)

Urtarrilaren 16a egun txarra izan zen: Scott eta bere gizonak(Edward Wilson, Henry Bowers, Edgar Evans eta Lawrence Oates) lera eta eski markak, txakurren oinatzak eta kanpaleku baten aztarnak ikustatu zituzten. Txarrena espero zuten. Hurrengo egunean, Hego Poloan bertan, atsekabe handiarekin beraien susmoak benetakoak zirela egiaztatu zuten, Amundsen aurreratu zitzaien.

Horrela, Amundsenen balentriaren 100 urte ostean munduko espedizio asko batu dira Antartidan omenaldia egiteko helburuarekin eta norvegiarrentzat ospakizun handiko eguna bihurtu da.

Iturriak:

-www.magazinedigital.com(Egilea: Rosa M. Bosh)

Erreferentziak:

-Javier Cacho, Amundsen-Scott, duelo en la Antartida. La carrera al polo sur. (Ed.Forcola)

-Angel Sanz, editor de Interfolio.Bi esploratzaileen egunerokoak argitaratu zituen gaztelaniaz.

Categories: History

Maya Angelou

“Puede que tengas que enfrentarte a muchas derrotas pero nunca debes acabar derrotado”. The hard life of this African-American woman is summarized in this phrase.  She was born in St. Louis (Missouri) the 1928. Her childhood was full of hard times. Her brother and she had to live for a long time with her ​​grandmother because her parents’s divorce. The 10 years spent with her grandmother in Stamps (Arkansas) provided her the most of the materials she would use in her famous autobiography: I know why the caged bird sings. In the book describes what it meant to be a colored girl in the state of Arkansas in the decades of 30 and 40.

When she was 8 years old she was raped by her mother’s boyfriend. After revealing the name of the attacker, Angelou had to go through trials and later for the murder of the rapist caused by her uncles. So, she realized that her words had the power to kill and she spent 5 years in silence. Decades later, the writer said: “Escribo para recuperar la voz negra y para todos aquellos oidos que quieran oirla”. Later, during her adolescence she had a brief drop in prostitution and she also got into the drug world.

But her political activism and her commitment to literature enabled her to get out of this deep well. Over the 60 and 70 decades Angelou was involved in the struggle for civil rights of her people. On the other hand, she traveled to several African countries where she worked as editor of newspapers and collaborate on humanitarian projects.

In addition to his autobiography, Angelou is a great writer of poems, here goes a poem based on his book:

I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

The free bird leaps

on the back of the win

and floats downstream

till the current ends

and dips his wings

in the orange sun rays

and dares to claim the sky.

But a bird that stalks

down his narrow cage

can seldom see through

his bars of rage

his wings are clipped and

his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with fearful trill

of the things unknown

but longed for still

and is tune is heard

on the distant hillfor the caged bird

sings of freedom.

The free bird thinks of another breeze

an the trade winds soft through the sighing trees

and the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn

and he names the sky his own.

But a caged bird stands on the grave of dreams

his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream

his wings are clipped and his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with a fearful trill

of things unknown

but longed for still

and his tune is heard

on the distant hill

for the caged bird

sings of freedom.

References:

Historia de NAVARRA, el estado vasco, as a reference for our wikipedia article

title page of the bookAfter being looking quite a long time for bibliography in google books, and have not found anything, I came up with this interesting work about the history of Navarre by Mikel Sorauren. Althoug the book, Called Historia de NAVARRA, el Estado vasco, and it is also available in Google books, although it has not e-books.

Although the bok is a general history of Navarre, from prehistory to nowadays, there is a quite good section on the Carlist wars, treating it from an independent point of view, regarding the historic precedents and the results for the basque, and has also a good synthesis of the carlist ideology. This book is quite recent also, it was published by Pamiela in the year 1999, and its second edition was done the following year. The third edition of this book was done in 2008.

The author, Mikel Sorauren (Iruñea, 1946) is a navarrese historian and politician, member of the Nabarralde foundation, which aim is to revive the navarrese conscience. Sorauren is currently retired, but it has worked as a teacher in a secondary school in Iruñea and as the coordinator of the contemporary history of the University of Navarre. He also was elected as a member of the navarrese parliment between years 1979 and 1983. The author has also done a book about the carlist wars (Fueros y Carlistada. Nabarralde, 2009). He also has worked with other authors in some other books about history of Navarre.

To sum up, although this book is about general history of Navarre, this is one of the best works we can use as references for our wikipedia article.

Categories: History, Humanities

Guernica (cuadro)

El Guernica  es por excelencia la obra maestra de Pablo Picasso que representa el bombardeo de 1937.  El cuadro del Guernica fue la primera gran vanguardia del siglo XX. Antonio Bonet  hizo referencia de ello en su libro titulado Anales de la historia del arte:

 

El conservadurismo proseguía por todas partes: en empresas, crítica de arte, coleccionismo, salas de exposiciones y el largo etcétera que al comercio de las ideas y a las obras de arte afectaba. De modo que, los innovadores como Picasso habrían de seguir viviendo dentro de un constante y generalizado clima de incomprensión.

Pablo Picasso,  referiendose al Guernica:

Pinto así porque mi pintura es fruto de mi pensamiento. He trabajado años para obtener este resultado y si diese un paso atrás sería una ofensa para el pueblo, porque lo que hago es coherente con mi pensamiento. No puedo emplear recursos convencionales solo para darme la satisfacción de ser comprendido. No quiero descender a un nivel inferior.

Han sido varias las fuentes que hemos seleccionado para mejorar el artículo de Wikipedia referente al cuadro de Guernica. Las fuentes elegidas son relevantes ya que recogen información básica, esencial y contrastada sobre la época en la que se realizó el Guernica, el contexto social, el estilo del cuadro, el autor, etc.

En concreto, me gustaría centrarme principalmente en la siguiente referencia: (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/7986540.stm) porque está extraída de una página web fiable ya que BBC news magazine es uno de los mejores canales informativos del mundo. Además, la información que aparece en esta página es fundamental para entender el significado del cuadro de Guernica y lo que  Picasso quería transmitir con él a la sociedad. A pesar de que el cuadro tiene infinidad de símbolos, en concreto, esta referencia se detiene en los más importantes y relevantes:

  • El caballo
  • El toro
  • El soldado muerto en el suelo
  • Una madre sosteniendo a su hijo muerto

Según esta referencia , el caballo está relacionado con la población Española, y habría sido vencido por la fuerza del toro. Con lo cual, el toro, simboliza la España dictatorial de Franco.  El soldado descuartizado en el suelo simboliza parte de los calvarios vividos en la España de Franco. La mujer sosteniendo a su hijo muerto simboliza por su parte, el dolor psicológico y la impotencia de quienes perdieron a sus seres queridos.

Referencias:

1. Pablo Picasso. (2012, 15 de marzo). Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. Fecha de consulta: 21:51, marzo 16, 2012 desde http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pablo_Picasso&oldid=54606718.

2.Antonio Bonet Correa. (2011, 30 de noviembre). Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. Fecha de consulta: 21:53, marzo 16, 2012 desde http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antonio_Bonet_Correa&oldid=51806892.

3.Guernica (cuadro). (2012, 14 de marzo). Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. Fecha de consulta: 21:53, marzo 16, 2012 desde http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guernica_(cuadro)&oldid=54579355.

4. Simbología del cuadro de Guernica. Piecing together Guernica. (16/04/2012)

Categories: Arts, History, Humanities

The Diary of Anne Frank

With the title of The Diary of Anne Frank is known  the edition of the diaries written by the Jewish girl Anne Frank (Annelies Marie Frank) between June 12, 1942 and August 1, 1944 in a total of three notebooks preserved at present,  which tells her story as a teenager and two years time when he had to hide from the Nazis in Amsterdam during World War II.

At first they lived in Germany and moved to the Netherlands for work reasons, they felt safe and free, but when World War II broke out and in 1940 when the Germans invaded Holland, the Frank family hiding with another family in an attic Amsterdam, where worked Otto Frank.

But in 1944 are betrayed by someone and are arrested and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp. Only Otto Frank survived the camps, the other seven are hidden death. Hermann van Pels died in the gas chamber, Auguste is pushed to the tracks of a train during a transfer. Others die from starvation and disease. They never managed to shed light on who was the informer.

In 1945, after the liberation of Auschwitz, Otto returned to Amsterdam. Arrives with the hope of finding Anne and Margot alive, but he learned that they have not survived the invasion. Then somebody delivered him the papers that make up diary of Anne. Anne wanted her diary was published after the war, and that desire finally fulfilled. In 1947, after the war, Otto Frank is determined to fight for human rights and respect. He  annswered thousands of letters from people who have read the diary of his daughter. This is translated into several languages and is the subject of a play and a movie. Around the world people know the story of Anne Frank and is very impressed.

Bibliography:

http://www.annefrank.org/es/La-historia-de-Ana-Frank/

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diario_de_Ana_Frank

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Diary_of_a_Young_Girl

Categories: History, Multiculturality

Syria: intervention or non-intervention?

On 17 February 2012, a piece of news written by Kevin Ovenden in The Guardian stated this: ” Calls for aggressive intervention in Syria are growing as the country slides further into sectarian civil war. The shrillest are from the Republican right, joined this week by Israel’s foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman. The same people are campaigning for confrontation with Iran, threatening a major war. Elliot Abrams, a neoconservative architect of the Iraq disaster, spells out the connection: Syria, he says, provides a “proxy opportunity” to heat up the cold war with Tehran”.

As happened in Libya, “the war was purportedly to save lives. In fact, the killing intensified on all sides, including from Nato bombs. Estimates of the number dead reach 30,000. The outcome is not democracy and human rights. Amnesty International is the latest NGO to report the torturing to death of prisoners under the new regime and rival militias”.

The Tribune News, added in March through the reporter Vaishnav Sunil that “what distinguishes Syria from Libya is the nature of existing opposition within the country. Unlike Libya, where much of the coastal core of the population lived under rebel control, the opposition to Syria’s dictatorial president, Bashar al-Assad, has not achieved sustained control of any major population area. This implies that air power alone would probably not be sufficient to blunt the Assad loyalists entrenched in cities, and a heavy ground campaign would probably face stiff and bloody resistance. If a large region broke away from the regime en masse, international humanitarian intervention would become more viable. So although a mass homicide campaign is under way in Syria, there is no way to stop it without loss of unacceptable lives.”

Many political experts claim that militaryintervention in Syria would do more harm than good. Namely, Ed Husain, Senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies, Council on Foreign Relations, gives his view on the motion in “Economist Debates: Syria”. He believes that “military intervention in Syria is ill-conceived, short-sighted, counter-productive, and likely to generate more killings and massacres rather than stop them. Unlike any other Arab nation, Syria is home to varied and numerous assortments of religious sects, tribes, ethnicities and historic rivalries. In contrast to the uprisings in Yemen, Egypt and Libya, we have not witnessed high-level political and military defections inside Syria. And the largest cities in Syria—Damascus and Aleppo—have so far been relatively calm. Whatever the reasons—fear of, or support for, Bashar Assad—the opposition has thus failed to mobilise key constituencies inside Syria that would indicate to us that the regime is losing control”.

Nevertheless, there some few experst that are in favour of intervention. Shadi Hamid,director of research, Brooking Doha Center, states that “military action, in any context, should not be taken lightly. But neither should standing by and proposing measures that have, in Syria, so far failed to work. Opponents of intervention need to explain how staying the current course—hoping that diplomacy might work when it has not for nearly a year—is likely to resolve an increasingly deadly civil war”.

References:

  1. Kevin Ovenden, 17-02-12, “Western Intervention in Syria will do more harm than good”. The Guardian. Retrieved: 05-05-12 from www.guardian.co.uk.
  2. Vaishnav Sunil, March 2012, “Syria: must the west take action?” The Tribune News. Retrieved: 05-05-12 from www.thenewstribune.com.
  3. Ed Husain, 10-02-12, “West must not intervene militarily in Syria”. CNN. Retrieved: 03-05-12 from http://www.edition.cnn.com.
  4. Shadi Hamid, 21-02-12, Economist Debates: Syria. The Economist. Retrieved 03-05-12  from www.economist.com.
  5. Charles Crawford, 27-03-12, “If it brings freedom, a bloody Syrian civil war may be preferable to slavery”. Syrian Freedom. Retrieved: 05-05-12 from www.syrianfreedomls.tumblr.com.

“Guernica” koadroa: ikuspegi ikonologikoa

Post honen helburu nagusia, Guernica koadroaren ikonologia azaltzea da. Horretarako, Santiago Sebastián López eta F.D.Russel autoreen lanak erabili ditut. Ikuspegi ikonologiakoa aztertzen hasi baino lehen, beharrezkoa da obra honen aurkezpen txiki bat egitea. Guernica Pablo Picassoren margolan famatua da, 1937ko apirilaren 26an Espainiako Guda Zibilaren zehar gertatutako Gernikako bonbardaketa irudikatzen duena. II. errepublikak eskatu zion eta margolariak maiatzerako amaituta zeukan. Margolan hau urte horretan ospatutako erakusketa unibertsalean aurkeztu zen, Parisen.

Gernikan gertatutako bonbardaketak ez zeukan arrazoi politiko edo estrategikorik, herri honek ez baitzuen kokapen egokirik ez armada garrantzizkorik gudan. Gertaera honek, beraz, biztanleriaren izugarrizko beldurra eragitea bilatzen zuen. Eraso krudel eta bihozgabe horrek  Picassoren sentimenduak piztu zituen, eta, horrekin batera, bere barneko margolari bikaina. Maiatzean zehar, zirriborro asko egin eta gero, artelanari ekin zion, non irudi desberdinez baliatuz, esanahi ezkutu asko sortu zituen.

Esangura horiek azaltzeko, adituek, metodo ikonologikoa erabiltzen dute. Aipatu behar da, ordea, hori egin baino lehen, metodo ikonografikoa erabiltzen dela, non irudien azalpen orokor bat ematen den (kolorea, tamaina, kokapena…). Baina azalpen honetan, haratago joko dut; koadroan agertzen diren irudien interpretazioa egiten, edo azaltzen, ahaleginduko naiz. Lan arriskutsua, Picassok ez baitzuen azalpenik eman. Are gehiago, esanahi konkretuak azaltzearen kontra agertu zen behin baino gehiagotan. Iritzi eta usteen itsaso horretan, aldiz, badaude argi ikusten diren irudi batzuk. Koadroko zaldiak herriaren sufrimendua eta mina adierazten du. Beste aldetik, zezena aurkitzen da, guda, erasoa eta hondamendia gogoratuz. Azkenik, hirugarren eta azkenengo animalia, usoa, bakearen eta itxaropenaren sinboloa da. Pertsonei dagokienez, bi dira garrantzitsu. Bata, ama eta bere semea, hilik. Bestea, belauniko dagoen emakumea. Beharbada, bere familiako kideak bilatzen ari da, ezintasuna adieraziz.

Analisi mota hauek, dena dela, ez dira guztiz fidagarriak, bainda ikusleari laguntzen diote artelanak interpretatzen. Kasu honetan, Guernica koadroa polemika askoren iturri izan zen autorearen isiltasunarengatik. Hala ere, artearen munduan murgilduta dauden ikerlariek, ondo informatuta daudenean, analisi konplexuak eta interesgarriak egiten dituzte.

Erreferentziak:

-Santiago Sebastián López: “El Guernica y otras obras de Picasso: contextos iconográficos” Murcia, 1984

-F.D.Russel: “EL Guernica de Picasso: El laberinto de la narrativa y de la imaginación visual” Ed nacional, Madrid, 1981

-Wikipedia: http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gernika_(margolana) (2012ko maiatzaren 6an bilatuta)

Charles R. Cross: Writing about a Legend

I used to live in a room full of mirrors
All I could see was me
Then I take my spirit and I smash my mirrors
And now the whole world is here for me to see. [1]

Borrowing Jimi’s powerful words to title the book, on the 35th anniversary of his death came the definitive biography of rock ‘n’ roll legend, by the New York Times bestselling author Charles R. Cross. Coinciding with the 35th anniversary of Jimi Hendrix’s tragic death in 1970, Room Full of Mirrors is the definitive biography of rock ‘n’ roll’s greatest guitarist. Meticulously researched and based on more than 300 interviews with those who knew him best,-more than half of whom have never spoken about him before-, this landmark book recounts the entire arc of Hendrix’s life.

The author is a well-known veteran of the music trenches, having written the Kurt Kobain overview Heavier Than Heaven. There are maybe a half-dozen bands that, when you go to your local bookstore to see what’s available, you can find virtually entire shelves dedicated to. These artists include The Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Grateful Dead, Elvis, and Jimi Hendrix. So, to tackle the guitarist and try to present him in a new light is a difficult undertaking.

Cross begins with the legend’s birth and not only touches on the obvious – the drugs, the albums, the women, and the tours – but reaches way inside to tell us about his military service; his association with a number of musicians, including Miles Davis, and his rivalry with Mick Jagger; the Woodstock phenomenon; and the continuing estate battle that continues to this day (various members of his family each contend that the fallen hero’s legacy belongs to him/her alone).

If you’re a Hendrix admirer – and who isn’t? – then you probably already have in your home library, dozens of books written about him. But this time, the writer has found a new way to present the information; and through what is seemingly a massive amount of research and time spent in poring over archives and contacting principals, he has created a novel look at one of the world’s most wonderful players. I believe, it is an excellent book about a brilliant musician, and a highly recommended piece.

References:

Quotes:

  • [1]. Song written by Jimi Hendrix and played by The Jimi Hendrix Experience. Published in First Rays of the New Rising Sun posthumus album.
Categories: Arts, History, Music

Espazioaren konkista Wikipedian jasoa


Ideologia antagonistak, espioiak, muga fisikoak, estatu kolpeak, gerrillak, bonba nuklearrakXX. mendearen  ezaugarriak jasotzen eta sintetizatzen dituen prozesu luzea eta interesgarria da Gerra Hotza. Gertakari historiko luze lez, historiako adar ezberdinak ikutzen ditu, hala nola, politika, ekonomia, zientzia eta teknologia . Ondorioz, gai honek eskeintzen duen zabaltasuna Wikipedian jasotzea erabaki dugu, dokumentazio egokiarekin eutsiz. Era berean, Wikipedian ageri den jatorrizko artikuluak izan dezakeen informazio falta edo hutsunea betetzea dugu helburutzat.

Lehenik eta behin, gaztelaniako jatorrizko artikuluaren informazioa irakurri genuen eta bere erreferentziak aztertu genituen. Informazioa Google Docs plataforman itzuli genuen. Informazioaren zati handia itzulita zegoela, tutoria izan genuen, eta, bertan, jada itzulita zegoen artikulua klaseko Deusto Littera Wikian sortu genuen sarrera berria eta bertan ekin genion lanari. Artikulua Wiki plataformara pasatzeko unean, atal ezberdinetan banatu informazioa: Sarrera, Aurrekari historikoak, Gerra Hotzeko testuingurua, Apolo programak, 12 astronautak, gastu ekonomikoak… Falta ziren atal horiek klaseko Wikian sortutako sarreran itzuli eta taldeko kideen artean landu genituen.

Artikulua burutzeko unean eguneroko lanari garrantzia eman diogu. Zatika egin dugu lana, pixkanaka-pixkanaka eguneroko ekarpenak eginez. Hori izan da gure artikuluaren luzeeraren gakoa. Era horretan, lehen aipatu diren adar ezberdinak garatu dira, hots, politika, ekonomia edota teknologiari buruz aritu gara.

Informazio hori aberasteko xedearekin, beste bibliografia bilatu genuen, adibidez, RIA Novosti agentzia errusiarraren artikuluak, NASAren orrialdeko informazioa, El Mundo egunkariko artikulua, Historiako testuliburuak… Behin artikulua prest zegoela, Wikipedian kontua sortu dugu eta bertan jarri dugu gure artikulua: Espazioko Lehia. Ondoren, argazki egokiak bilatu ditugu informazioari dimentsio bisuala emateko. Wikipedian egindako azken ekintza esteken eranstea izan da. Esan beharra dago termino batzuei buruz euskarazko Wikipediak dituen eskasiak gure lana zaildu duela.

Azkenik, gaiari buruzko informazio gehigarria bilatu dut, adibidez, Apolo 13aren inguruko dokumentala, taldean partekatu duguna. Oso lan interesgarria iruditu zait, gai honi buruzko ezaugarri berriak ikasi baititut. Era horretan, gaiarekiko interesa piztu da nigan eta esperientzia aberasgarria izan dela deritzot.

Erreferentziak:

- Wikipediako artikulua: http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Espazioko_lasterketa

- Deustuko Littera Median egindako artikulua: http://wiki.littera.deusto.es/en/index.php/Infoman1112/Space_Race

¿Qué es el equivalente a la RAE en euskera?

Euskaltzaindia es la Real Academia de la Lengua Vasca, el equivalente a la Real Academia de La Lengua Española (RAE) en euskera fundada en 1919, cuyo primer presidente fue R.M. Azkue , fundador de la institución junto a  A. Campión, L. Eleizalde y J. Urquijo.

Está insitutción tiene como principales cometidos investigar y formular las leyes gramaticales de la lengua vasca, promover su uso y velar por los derechos de la lengua.

Los fines propios de la Academia se expresaron del siguiente modo en los primeros Estatutos de 1920:

  1. Izkeraketz eta gizarteketz, euskera ayolaz landu ta yagoten zain egotea, Bazkun aunen elburua da: andik ere bere izena. (El fin de esta institución es velar por la lengua vasca, atendiendo intensamente a su cultivo, tanto en el orden filológico como en el social).
  2. Zainbide bioi dagokienez, Sail bitan ere bereizturik euskaltzaiñak beren arloan diardukete; euskal-ikerleen sailean, ta yagoleenean, lagun bakoitza bietan dagokelarik. (En coherencia con ambos cometidos, la Academia comprende dos secciones, Filológica y Tutelar, y a ambas pueden pertenecer sus miembros).

Por ello, la academia consta de dos secciones, encargada cada una de desempeñar una de las funciones antes mencionadas: la Sección de Investigación y la Sección de Tutelaje.

Existen tres tipos de miembros pertenecientes a esta organización:

  1. Los académicos de número, los que tienen voto y autoridad para tomar decisiones. Son 24, y cada uno representa un dialecto del euskera.
  2. Los miembros honoríficos. Son 19 destacados investigadores de la lengua vasca.
  3. Los miembros correspondientes. Se trata de 124 personas que colaboran en diferentes comisiones.

El actual presidente es Andrés Urrutia, quien lleva desempeñando su cargo desde el año 2005.

Referencias:

Virgen de Begoña

La Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Begoña es una de las construcciones religiosas más representativas de la villa de Bilbao, y como tal, supone un monumento muy sugerente para proceder a su análisis. La gran devoción de sus adeptos a lo largo de su historia y su atractiva gran fachada la han convertido en todo un símbolo del barrio de Begoña, y un orgullo para sus habitantes.

La Basílica de Begoña alberga entre sus muros la imagen de la patrona de Bilbao, Nuestra Señora de Begoña. Esta es una imagen gótica, sedente de María, sin respaldo, teniendo en sus rodillas al hijo. Una serena quietud de dignidad soberana parece indentificarla con la realeza de su Hijo, al que ella se debe en cuerpo y alma.Es como la expresión espiritual y humana de todas las generaciones cristianas florecidas en esta tierra. Más que una talla y efigie es un concepto puro de la maternidad de la maternidad encarnada donde seaposenta su incomparable dignidad de Madre e Hijo de Dios.

No obstante, una de las mejores descripciones de la imagen de Nuestra Señora de Begoña nos la otorga Don Andrés Eliseo de Mañaricúa. Según Don Eliseo:

“Es de notar que su sonrisa es de tipo esencialmente maternal, pero con la particularidad de que la dirige, no al hijo de sus entrañas,sino a nosotros pecadores que también somos hijos suyos. Al decir que la sonrisa de aquellos labios es esencialmente maternal, está dicho que es de la máxima pureza. Sin sensualismo, depuradísima. Lograda en la madera por los rasgos más elementales de una sonrisa en el arte: el característico fruncimiento de los labios, la tirantez de la piel del rostro y el marcado de las cejas, unido todo a una actitud de cuello y rostro como de quien se alarga hacia la persona a quien sonríe. Todo ello sin ninguna pose de ningún tipo, rasgo muy gótico.

La imagen mide 0,93 metros desde la linea de los pies hasta la altura de la cabeza. El rostro de la imagen es ovalado y su cabellera se parte en dos dejando una frente amplia al descubierto. Un rostro sereno con una mirada muy característica. Ella llevaba en su mano derecha una flor como símbolo de su virginidad; ahora lleva un cetro de reina. Su mano izquierda descansa sobre el hombro del niño. La virgen es el trono de Jesús. Prácticamente en el centro del regazo de la Madre descansa el niño vestido con un manto y una túnica. El rostro del niño Jesús muestra goza de una rica expresividad infantil.

Referencias:

1-Barrio Loza, José Ángel y otros. Patrimonio histórico de Bizakaia: Bilbao. Ed. Diputación Foral de Bizkaia. Bilbao, 1998-2002.

2-Alonso de Miguel, Román. Bilbao en imágenes. Ed. Bilbao Bizkaia Kutza. Bilbao, 1993.

3-Castañer Xesqui , Arte y Arquitectura en el País Vasco: El Patrimonio Del Románico Al Siglo XX, 2003

Categories: Arts, History

La extinción de las especies

“La vida sobre la Tierra está desapareciendo rápidamente, y lo seguirá haciendo salvo que se encaren acciones urgentes” así comenzaba el documento emitido en el 2007 en la ciudad suiza de Gland por la UICN (Unión Internacional de Conservación de la Naturaleza). Por aquel entonces 16.300 especies estaban en peligro de extinción, los últimos estudios revelan que una especie animal o vegetal desaparece en el mundo cada 15 minutos, esto sin contar que muchas de ellas ni siquiera llegan a ser descubiertas por el hombre o la ciencia.

La extinción de las especies es una de los problemas más graves de la naturaleza, ya que con ello se pone en peligro el equilibrio necesario en todo el ecosistema, cada especie necesita de otra para su propia supervivencia. Pero esta pérdida de variabilidad biológica no solo afecta a la naturaleza, también a la pérdida de diversidad genética, fuente de sustento para las generaciones futuras.

Extinción es la desaparición de todos los miembros de una especie o un grupo de taxones. Se considera extinta a una especie en el instante en el que muere el último individuo de esta. Debido a que su rango de distribución potencial puede ser muy amplio, determinar ese momento puede ser complicado, por lo que normalmente se hace en retrospectiva.

El tigre de Amur o tigre siberiano es una subespecie de tigre propia de los bosques de hoja perenne del extremo sureste de Rusia, en la región del río Amur y la frontera entre Rusia y China. Tradicionalmente se le ha considerado la mayor subespecie de tigre y el mayor felino criado naturalmente en el mundo.Desgraciadamente este animal se encuentra en peligro de extinción, principalmente a causa de la caza furtiva por el valor de su piel. Un censo realizado en 2005 demostró que la población de tigres de Amur es de alrededor de 500 individuos, de los cuales solo alrededor de 200 ejemplares se encuentran en libertad.

“Produce una inmensa tristeza pensar que la naturaleza habla mientras el género humano no la escucha. Primero fue necesario civilizar al hombre en su relación con el hombre. Ahora es necesario civilizar al hombre en su relación con la naturaleza y los animales. Porque la tierra no es del hombre, el hombre es de la tierra” Victor Hugo

References:

- G. Tyler Jr. Miller. Ciencia ambiental: Desarrollo sostenible, un enfoque integral, Cengage Learning Editores. 2007

- http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Especie_en_peligro_de_extinci%C3%B3n

- http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2007/09/12/ciencia/1189607319.html

Categories: History, Humanities
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