Tobacco is the most consumed drug in our world. Some years ago it wasn’t frowned upon, but nowadays smokers are marginalized. Two years ago the Spanish parliament approved an anti-smoking law. Now smokers have to go out from where they are to smoke. And I think that this is a good law because non-smokers have to have more rights than the other. I dont mean that smokers deserve less rights but those who don’t like it should have priority.
Thats what smoking does to your body:
“Smoking hurts your lung’s natural cleaning and repair system and traps cancer-causing chemicals build in your lungs. Smoking destroys the tiny hairs, which line the upper airways and protect against infection. Normally, there is a very thin layer of mucous and thousands of these hairs lining the insides of your breathing tubes. The mucous traps the little bits of dirt and pollution you breath oxygen in, and the hairs move together like a wave to push the dirt-filled mucous out of your lungs. Then you have to waste your time coughing , swallow, or spit up the mucous, and the dirt is out of your lungs. When your lungs’ natural cleaning and repair system is hurt, germs, dirt and chemicals from cigarette smoke stay inside your lungs and never come out. This puts you at risk for a cough that never goes away, chest infections, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .”
But not only those who smoke are who suffer it’s damage. I’m referring to secondhand smokers. Secondhand smokers are who breathe the smoke when they are not smoker, for example, children, waiters… here we have the result of the damage that it causes:
-The EPA says secondhand smoke causes 3,000 cancer fatalities in Americans each year.
– The American Heart Association says that secondhand smoke causes 50,000 fatal heart attacks in Americans each year.
– An unspecified number of Americans are dying each year from “respiratory illnesses” attributable to secondhand smoke.
Most of the smokers are young. There are only a few who start smoking being an adult.
Teenagers start with it because they think that it is cool or that they may have more friends.
I don´t know. But what we know is that smoking is really harmful for our health and we must
not start with it.
The principal countries that cultivate tobaco are: Cuba, India, China, USA and Pakistan.
They use many pesticides that harm seriouly the ground. Tobacco companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young plants to the field. Pesticide use has started because the producers want to get larger crops in less time. Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These pesticides, finally, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food chain.
The Second-hand Smoke Will Endanger Non-smokers Health
Passionate Anti Smoking Tobacco
IF WE ARE WHAT WE EAT, ARE NOT WE CLOSER TO “NATURE” IF WE INCORPORATE NATURAL AND ORGANIC FOODS INTO OUR DIET?
The “organic” label is one of the more recent vintage and is the product of its own countercultural revolution. Its prominence in grocery store aisles reflects a cultural repulsion against factory farms and their reliance on chemical, biological and other industrial solutions to the myriad challenges posed by growing crops and raising animals for safe human consumption.
Two of the most symbolic words in food promotion nowadays are “organic” and “natural.” Generally defined, “natural” means “present in or produced by nature” and is not something “altered, treated or disguised,” but rather “faithfully represents nature or life.” “Organic,” in its most abstract sense, means “simple, healthful, and close to nature.”
Organic products they are rare even among Spanish consumers. However, Spain is the second European country as a producer of organic food, almost 80% is exported to other countries. The reasons cited by citizens for not buying these products are unknown (33.3%), difficult to find in the market (31.3%) or the highest price (28.1%), which sometimes reaches overcome the traditional foods of 100%, especially fruits and vegetables.
What is ecological farming?
Organic farming also known as biological or organic, is a way to cultivate and care for the land and raising cattle respectfully with nature, without the use of toxic chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, so on). Seeded modified genetically (called GM or GMO) without forcing fertility cycles or animal feed. Its purpose is to get healthy food for all, at its maturity, with all the flavor, aroma, texture, with all the vitality and all the benefits of healthy food.
Besides, these foods offer many advantages over traditional reasons to opt for them.
Why eat ecological food?
Because they are healthy and safe for the body and have all the nutrients and vitamins own food.
Come from organic farming, that by not using toxic chemicals helps protect our health and care of the farmers and the environment.
Because plant or animal ingredients have not been genetically modified. Organic farming takes account of traditional agricultural knowledge while knowledge is up to date and cutting edge techniques to keep improving in all aspects, but not away from life or nature, and is managed with strict quality standards.
Because they come from an agriculture that preserves and enhances biodiversity by encouraging the planting of hedges and trees, to remove chemicals that affect wildlife and the entire food chain by diversifying crops, conserve indigenous seeds.
Organic farming is also a commitment by the farmer and the farmer to look after the land, woodland and water, to enable the animals to develop their innate behavior and are at all times in a position of comfort, to respect their cycles and needs.
Because they come from an agriculture that promotes work and country life preserving its own culture and contributes to satisfaction, health and culture of living in the city. While maintaining the diversity of the landscape with its beauty and harmony, helping to create jobs by requiring more labor and reduce agricultural surpluses with promoting quality rather than quantity.
Because organic food to take contribute to responsible consumption. A consumer of organic products know that organic farming contributes to rural development to better use of resources and a brake erosion and fires, a survival of the caring professions field then enjoyed by all; a fair prices for farmers.
Buy organic food, it is, food from the agriculture and livestock, is to support farmers to do their work gladly, watching the economic and social development of our peoples.
Because organic farming helps us recover the flavors almost lost, eating nice food gastronomic culture we know and we like for its aroma, its flavor.
Ultimately for their good quality.
How can we identify an ecological food?
All packaged products are obtained according to the rules of organic farming with its labeling are: “Organic farming” (in Castilian or in any of the languages of the European Union) and a logo or seal indicating authority or body control which certifies that this is so. If the product is produced and packaged in the EU can carry the logo European Organic and Biological.
If the product is fresh and not packaged (fruits, vegetables), make sure that the producer is enrolled in a watchdog and has a certificate of organic farming and production control.
Nowadays, it is demanded definite values which are linked to differential products, among the quality, safety, health, sustainability, so on. Food is a social and cultural fact as well as biological. Therefore, we do not only ingest nutrients, but also symbols. Through this act, we build an important part of our individual and social identity.
It is an interest for the traditional, the authentic, the craftsman, natural, products our land.
To sum up, organic foods have become part of daily food consumption thanks to its distinction, health, safety, nature, tradition, so on.
A dynamic that relies on new consumer trends in post-industrial societies, eager to find in nature the lost sensations by the advance of modernization and connecting with new marketing strategies that aim to consolidate “the local “as a brand or seal of quality and differentiation.
Organic production allows farmers and rural agro-industries to acquire a small space of autonomy from corporate power, in an increasingly competitive environment.
This strategy allows us to analyze the interaction between the local and the global, between tradition and innovation, and between the legacy of the past and the future bet. It goes without saying that the world echoing lets you discover a mosaic of men and women who work our land with a deep respect for the environment, animal welfare and food quality, healthier and they do these days with a optimistic mood, because we know that we are a small gift will be the great future buts. It is ultimately a way of raising awareness about organic food and highlight the quality and richness of our land.
- AGUILAR CRIADO, E. (2007), Productos locales, mercados globales. Nuevas estrategias de desarrollo en el mundo rural, en García Docampo, M. (ed.), Perspectivas Teóricas en Desarrollo Local. La Coruña: Netbiblo, pp. 147-169.
- ALONSO BENITO, L. E. (2004). “Las políticas del consumo: transformaciones en el proceso de trabajo y fragmentación de los estilos de vida”, en RES. Revista Española de Sociología, nº 4, pp. 7-50.
- ALONSO BENITO, L. E. (2002). “¿Un nuevo consumidor?”, en Abaco: Revista de cultura y ciencias sociales, nº 31, pp. 11-18.
- BESIÈRE, J. (1998), “Local Development and Heritage: Traditional Food and Cuisine as Tourist Attractions in Rural Areas”, en Sociologia Ruralis, nº 38 (1), pp. 21-34.
- BRUGAROLAS, M.; RIVERA, L. M. y SÁNCHEZ, M. (1997). “Potencial de mercado para nuevos productos alimentarios: la producción ecológica.” Investigaciones europeas de dirección y economía de la empresa, nº 3(1), pp. 61-76.
- CALOMARDE BURGALETA, J. V. (2000). “Marketing ecológico”. Madrid: Ed. Pirámide y Esic Editorial.
- CÁCERES, J. y ESPEITX, E. (2002), “Riesgo alimentario y consumo: percepción social de la seguridad alimentaria”, en Gracia (Coord), Somos lo que comemos. Estudios de alimentación y cultura en España. Barcelona: Ariel, pp.317-348.
- CÁCERES, F.; CRUZ, J. C.; RODRÍGUEZ, A.y RUBIO, L. A. (2004). “Calidad agroalimentaria y denominaciones de origen.” Cuadernos de la Tierra del Agricultor y Ganadero, Nº 3, PP. 6-16.
- DÍAZ MÉNDEZ, C. y GÓMEZ BENITO, C. (2001). “Del consumo alimentario a la sociología de la alimentación”, EN Distribución y Consumo, Nº 60, PP. 5-23.
- GONZÁLEZ RUIZ, L.y COBO QUESADA, F. B. (2000). “Agricultura Ecológica en España: las estrategias de marketing, claves para el éxito”, en Distribución y Consumo, nº51, pp.39-55.
- HERVIEU, B. (1997). Los campos del futuro, Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación.
- LOZANO CABEDO, CARMEN (2007), “La agricultura ecológica en el nuevo modelo de ruralidad. Una aproximación desde la Sierra de Segura (Jaén)”, en Neira, X.; Cervera, A. y Simón, X., Agroecoloxía e Agricultura Ecolóxica en Galiza. Catarroja (Valencia): SEAE, pp.91-99
- MURDOCH, J. y MIELE, M. (1999). “‘Back to Nature': Changing ‘Worlds of Production’ in the Food Sector.” Sociologia Ruralis, 39(4), 465-483.
- NYGARD, B.y STORSTAD, O. (1998). “De-globalization of Food Markets? Consumer Perceptions of Safe Food: The Case of Norway.” Sociologia Ruralis, 38(1), 35-53.
- RENARD, M.-C. (1999). “The Interstices of Globalization: The Example of Fair Coffee.” Sociologia Ruralis, 39(4), 484-500.
- WILLER, H.;SORENSEN, N.y YUSSEFI-MENZLER, M. (2008). “The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2008.
Mrs. Dalloway, which was published on 14 May 1925, is a Novel by Virginia Woolf, an English writer regarded as one of the greatest modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. The whole novel is the detailed and meticulous explanation of a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway, but the innovative treatment of time and the different types of narrator have established this work as one of the reference modernist novels.
This is the story of a high class woman who lives in London with her husband Richard Dalloway and her daughter Elizabeth. The whole novel is a description of one only day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway. At the beginning, she is going around the city in the morning, getting ready to host a party that evening, and the history ends that same day together with the end of the party. Yet, as the narration goes on, different issues take place, just like the appearance of Peter Walsh, who was Clarissa’s former boyfriend, and Sally Seton, her first true love who was also her best friends. These reunions make her wonder what would had happened if she has decided to marry the enigmatic and romantic Peter in except of the reliable Richard, and she also revives the feelings she had to Sally which seem not to be completely forgotten.
Together with Clarissa’s history, we also find Septimus Warren Smiths case. He was a veteran of World War I suffering from physiological problems due to the death of her best friend Evans. He lives with her Italian-born wife Lucrezia, who takes care of him, but although she was always looking after him she couldn’t avoid his suicide.
Clarissa’s party in the evening is a success. It is attended by most of the characters she has met in the book, including people from her past. She hears about Septimus’ suicide at the party and gradually comes to admire the act of this stranger, and makes her think about which is the sense of her live.
It is important to know that the main characteristic of the novel isn’t what it happens but how it is narrated. Virginia decided to leave apart the external actions to dive into the inside world of every character, so most part of the work is just meditation and thinking of the protagonists. Hence, it is important to recognize the themes of the novel, as they are considered the essence of all Virginia Woolf’s works.
There is a vast diversity of themes in the novel Mr. Dalloway, but some of them are much more important than others. The problems and themes analyzed in this novel are not particular issues like they used to be in the 19TH century novel, they are problems concerning the human being, common worries, and although she introduced them using a single character, she used them as a symbol of what she wanted to transmit. These are some of them:
Firstly, she speaks about the situation of women in the Victorian society. The idea of a woman in that time was based on the concept of a perfect lady to be shown to the society; the lady is only the one that goes with an important man. But Clarissa shows a different view of this issue, she doesn’t think a women is nobody without a man, she knows that a woman can be successful for herself.
Secondly, we find the issues concerning death and suicide, and Septimus is considered the great symbol. This character thinks he is able to see a truth anyone else is able to appreciate, and it is such cruel that he ends up committing suicide. By this fact we can understand how difficult life was for the writer, and what her point of view of humanity and world was.
The third important theme is the time. This is an important issue due to the way in which it is used, changing the traditional notion of time as a chronologic structure based novel, intro a fragmentary novel with different techniques to show us which are the consequences of time in human life. The time and how the time changes a person were some of the obsessions of Virginia Woolf, and they are very important to understand the novel.
Overall, it is clear that Mrs. Dalloway is a highly representative novel, as it shows how Virginia Woolf lived and felt; like a woman born in a time that just didn’t suit her.
- La Señora Dalloway, Virginia Woolf, Alianza Editorial S.A. (2004)
- Mrs. Dalloway, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mrs_Dalloway
Jane Austen was born in Steventon, England 16 December 1775. She was a well-known British writer who lived while XVIII and XIX centuries. She was the daughter of the reverend Austen. Jane had six brothers and a sister named Cassandra. The relationship between both of them was not only special because they were sisters, but also because they were very good friends. In fact, they were confidents and there is a collection of letters they wrote to each other in which some relevant points of Jane Austen’s life are revealed.
Between 1785 and 1786, Jane and Cassandra were students of a private school in Reading. Moreover, three of Austen’s brothers signed in the army and that is why the writer used to know so much information about the way of living in the regiment. After 1787, Jane started writing, for the joy of her family, Juvenilia, which included some parodies about the literature of that time.
When talking about her personal life there is not constancy about any husband, there were however, two important men in her life. The first one was Thomas Letroy, a man she met at the age of 20. She seemed to be in love with him but his precarious economical situation did not let him marry Jane. We do not know much about the second man; the only thing that is known is that she used to go on holidays to the coast every summer. She met him there and he apparently fell in love with her, and so did she. However, he tragically died. This story does not appear in the letter collection of the sisters but Cassandra told it to her nieces once. Neither Jane nor Cassandra got ever married.
In 1803 Jane Austen sold her first novel,’ The Northanger abbey’, but the book was not published until 14 years later. In 1805, her father died letting her, Cassandra and their mother without any money. In 1806, they moved to Southampton a town near the navy base of Portsmouth. That changed allowed her and her sister visit their brothers who were working there. In 1809 she continued writing and revising some novels, she sold ‘Sense and sensibility’ in 1810. The author also tried selling ‘Pride and Prejudice’ but this was sold in 1812, and published in 1813.
Nevertheless, even though her career as a writer was going well, indeed, she published ‘Emma’ in 1815, she started to get sick and she was moved to Winchester in 1817. She died the 18th of July of the same year there, and her last words were: I do not want anything but death. She was buried in Winchester’s cathedral.
FEATURES OF HER WORK:
Jane Austen was known because of her capacity of describing common and real things in a romantic and special way. James Edward Austen-Leigh wrote in his sister’s memories that ‘she opened her mouth with wisdom and in her tongue is the law of kindness ‘. With her, a new style of writing was born; her descriptions were realistic and showed good behavior apart from showing fictitious experiences, always maintaining the truth principles. She wrote with romantic sensibility typical scenes of the time, everything with a touch of affection and traditionalism.
Lionel Trilling wrote in one of his essays about the writer:
“Jane Austen was the first writer who represented the modern personality specifically. She talked about the culture in which this was produced. Moral life had never been showed as she did show it. Moral life was never thought to be so complicated, hard and exhaustive. Hegel talked about secularizing spirituality as an essential feature of modernity and Jane Austen was the first one telling us what that secularization supposed.”
- Pride and Prejudice
- Sense and sensibility
- The Northanger abbey.
Many people are afraid of the sea, not only because of water, but also because of animals. Animals of the sea are not only small fishes, dolphins or whales; there are bigger and more dangerous animals as well. One of those dangerous and enormous animals are the sharks. Sharks are thought like animals which kill people as they want, but actually, they are not. It is true that they can be dangerous if they are hungry or even if you have blood, because they smell it; but they can also be as quiet and beautiful as dolphins. There are many types of sharks, but one more beautiful and amazing than the next, as we are going to see now.
The most known types of sharks are: the great white shark, the blue shark, the tiger shark, the bull shark, the mako shark and the hammerhead shark. Each of these “monsters”-called fishes, have some basic differences that make them easy to identify. Let’s see some features:
·The Great White Shark: it is the biggest and wildest shark, apart from the whale-shark, and it is usually fat, it has black eyes and its body is round. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_white_shark
·The Blue Shark: is long and thin, the thinest os every sharks, and its nose is very long as well. It is light-blue and it has a very black eyes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_shark
·The Tiger Shark: its body is not as grey as the others, and it has some paralel and vertical lighter marks, as tigers have. It is not very big but it is neither small, but its nose is large and crushed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger_shark
·The Bull Shark: it is a fat but short shark, usually dark grey, and with light eyes. It seems as it has a hump. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull_shark
·The Mako Shark: it is one of the smallest sharks, with a dark but bright grey, and very black eyes. It is one of the few types of sharks that have its teeth very out from the mouth. Its face is one of the ugliest and frightenings. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isurus
·The Hammerhead Shark: it is not small, it is medium size, but its best characteristic is its head: it is horizontal, long, and its eyes are each one in each corner of its head. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerhead_shark
There are many types os sharks, and it is impossible to explain all of them and completely here, that’s why I put here some links if some of you want to read more about these strange but dangerous animals…or so-called “monsters of the sea”. An aim of these post is to promote interest and less fear for these beasts, because they are not as bad animals as others. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharks
Jon Iparraguirre Corrales
We cannot avoid the fact that social networks ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network) are getting more famous these days. More and more people get inside of them and even more and more organizations also get inside those social networks. Social networks are normally used to share information with friends or other people, and within this information we find images, music, data, videos…etc and this all may create a new profile of us in the Internet. That profile is called digital identity and gives everyone that can see it an image of us. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_identity
Digital identity is actually important if you want to find a job, but we all must know that anyone else can see that information, and that’s why we all must setup our social network’s profiles. The reputation we gain when people see that information that we share, can be both good and bad, depending on who is the person that sees it. http://www.slideshare.net/pmhs/digital-reputation
The importance of setup our profiles in the social networks is getting bigger as day after day more and more people get inside of social networks, and they are more eyes to see what you share. There have even been some kind of problems as abuses by messages and things like that, and another problem that is not as common as the last one, is the fact that sometimes the information you want to send to someone arrives to anyone else. http://www.life123.com/parenting/tweens-teens/social-networking/issues-with-teens-and-social-networking.shtml
The problems of social networks are not avoidable and that’s why we must be careful of what we share and who we share with. Digital reputation can be good and important but also bad and dangerous. The identity we acquire in the Internet must be the one we want to, and we all must pay attention of what we share, who we share with, when and where if we want to keep our information safe.
Jon Iparraguirre Corrales