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Los tuareg

Los Tuareg pertenecen al grupo étnico de los bereberes, este pueblo es trashumante y basa su economía a la ganadería. Tiene la organización social de un linaje segmentario, esto es, son un grupo de personas unidas por distintos linajes. Estos distintos linajes tienen dentro del mismo grupo unas posiciones a novel jerárquico distintas, dependiendo del tiempo que lleven dentro del grupo. A pesar que estos grupos exista la idea de clase social, no hay un gobierno centralizado. Para tomar las decisiones que atañen existe la posibilidad de formar un consejo tribal pero este tipo de grupos están liderados por una “Big men”, pero esta figura a la vez tiene unos poderes e influencia muy limitados. En estos clanes no hay manera de obligar a uno de sus miembros a acatar una decisión.

mujer con la cara pintada

mujer tipica de este pueblo nomada

  • La economía de estos grupos es plenamente trashumante, tienen distintos tipos de ganado que van desde ovejas y cabras hasta camellos, viven con los productos que obtienen de estos. Estos distintos productos (leche, carnes, pieles y cueros, queso…), son consumidos por los miembros del grupo a modo de subsistencia o son intercambiados por productos secundarios o por dinero en metálico con otros pueblos. Están especializados en la ganadería, por lo tanto no tienen otro modo de conseguir alimentos. Unidos a sus animales, esenciales para su supervivencia, estas familias están en constante movimiento para hallar nuevos pastos para sus cabezas de ganado. Nunca se quedan más de unos pocos meses en un mismo lugar, semanas en muchas ocasiones.
  • Dentro del grupo, hay distintas clases sociales y su influencia está muy diferenciada. Podemos observar cinco clases sociales muy marcadas; una aristocracia que mantiene el poder; sacerdotes que se ocupan de las ceremonias religiosas; trabajadores que se ocupan de los animales; artesanos que crean todas las herramientas necesarias y en el escalón más bajo, los esclavos negros.
  • El género y la edad son rasgos a tener en cuenta dentro del grupo para medir la influencia de casa uno, aunque practican la religión musulmana también son un pueblo matriarcal, por lo que las mujeres tienen gran influencia dentro del grupo. Dentro del hogar la mujer lleva las riendas de la familia y a la hora de repartir la herencia las mujeres son las que tienen prioridad sobre los hombres.
  • Pero la figura que posee más influencia dentro del grupo es el “big men”, este líder es el hombre más rico de la tribu, ya que posee el mayor número de cabezas de ganado. El utiliza este ganado para mantener a su extensa familia y repartir algo con los de la tribu. Este si quiere que algo se haga, tiene que dar ejemplo y utilizar la persuasión. Para tener influencia dentro de las decisiones solo puede dar consejos, nunca órdenes. Este tirulo no se puede heredar y el portador lo puede perder si su número de cabezas de ganado disminuye o la tribu así lo decide.
  • Las poblaciones de estas familias suelen ser muy reducidas, de unos 250-500 miembros. Suelen tener más animales que personas u estos grupos viven muy distanciados de los otros pueblos.

References:

GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK

December 14, 2012 Leave a comment

fitipaldi

Ondorengo blog honek Gorbeiako Parke Natural magiko eta liluragarriari buruzko informazio zabala eskaintzen du. Paradisu eder honek hainbat ekintza egiteko aukera ematen du eta gure helburua aukera horiek ondo kudeatzea eta jendea erakartzea da parkeari buruzko informazioa emanez.

Blog honetan gure estrategia garatzeko erreferentzia nagusia “Gorbeia Central Park” webgune edo blog ezaguna  izan da. Horretaz gain, esan beharra daukagu blog hau aurrera ateratzeko “Arratia Suzien” taldearen eta “Arratiako Mankomunitatearen” laguntza izan dugula.

Gorbeiako Parke Naturala Bizkaia eta Araba artean kokatzen da. Parke eder hau, Euskadiko parke natural handiena da 26.050 hektarea dituelarik eta bertako gailurrik garaiena Gorbeia mendia dugu 1481m-rekin. Aldamin 1375m eta Lekanda 1303m-rekin, dira beste gailur garrantzitsu batzuk.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Bizkaiko txoko maitagarri hau 1994.  urtean izendatu zuten parke natural bezala ez soilik bere balio naturalarengatik baita bere balio kulturalarengatik bertako herri txikiak kulturaren ondare dira, tradizio eta pentsaera zaharrak ederki mantendu dituzten herritarrez beteak: Bizkaia aldean kokatzen diren herriak Areatza, Zeanuri, Zeberio eta Orozko dira Araban aldiz Zigoitia, Zuia eta Urkabustaiz.

Parke natural honek balore sentimental eta ideologiko handia izateaz aparte aukera bikainak eskaintzen ditu, kirol ezberdinak egiteko aukera adibidez: trekking, eskalada, mountain-bike, espedeologia… herrietako janleku bikainak dastatzeko aukera; Gorostondo, Arratiano, , Axpe Goikoa… uda giroan herrietako jai giroan murgiltzeko aukera, animaliez gozatzeko aukera ….. familiarekin eguna pasatzeko aukera …. .

Lo egiteko leku anitz dituzu edozein herritan baita ingurukoetan ere; Arantza (Igorren),  Hotel Balneario Hesperia… (Areatzan) Hotel Etxegana ( Zeanuri)  eta horretaz gain herri hauek bisitatzeko aukera ederra, herri txikiak izan arren erakargarriak baitira.

Blog honek bere berriak eta ekintza ezberdinak Twitter eta Facebook bezalako sare sozialetan partekatuko ditu jendeak gure berri izan dezan.

 

ERREFERENTZIAK:

Anon, GORBEIA SUZIEN. Available at: http://gorbeiasuzien.blogspot.com.es/.

Anon, ARRATIAKO MANKOMUNIATETA. Available at: http://www.arratia.net/eu-ES/Orrialdeak/default.aspx.

Anon, GORBEIA CENTRAL PARK. Available at: http://www.gorbeiacentralpark.com/es/.

Equestrianism

December 13, 2012 Leave a comment

My favourite hobby is horse riding, undoubtedly. I have always had a special connection to these animals that I find not only beautiful but astonishing.

A horse is the projection of peoples’ dreams about themselves – strong, powerful, beautiful – and it has the capability of giving us escape from our mundane existence. Pam Brown

Caballo-Arabe-NegroThe horse has played an important role throughout human history all over the world, horses have been used in wars and in peaceful moments. It is not easy to affirm the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden; it seems that horses first were ridden approximately 4500 BC. Nevertheless it seems evident that horses were ridden long before they were driven.

What is clear is that horse riding is a hobby which is enjoyed by all ages. Most people start horse riding when young,but there are many people who take up horse riding for the first time later in life.

Horse riding (British English) or Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, horseman, horse)  refers to the skill of riding or driving horses. This description includes the use of horses for working purposes or competitive sport, not forgetting that horses are also used to improve human health and emotional development. Read more…

“Game Makers”

December 12, 2012 Leave a comment

Game Makers were the volunteers for the Olympic Games hosted this past summer in London. The reason of this name is because thanks to them the Olympic Games were possible. They job consisted on helping spectators and competitors, answer any question and managing to work the games properly. Volunteers were from all age range and came from diverse background, they did not just come from across the UK they also particípate many people from abroad. All volunteers were recognized by their brightly coloured uniforms.
Olympic Games have lots of work to do; they usually start to prepare the games at least four years before the games take place. So, recruiting many volunteers for the Olympics is also a long and hard work. Games Makers recruitment began in September 2010, there were sent more than 240,000 applications and interviewed 100,000 people. The selected applicants had to attend at least three training lessons to be as prepared as possible for the games.
As said before, volunteers were from different ages. Over 2,000 volunteers were from 16-18 years old and they took part in the Young Games Maker programme. They had many different roles and they worked in teams. Many volunteers also took part in the London Prepares series test events: an invaluable opportunity to gain experience and a greater understanding of how a large sporting event is staged.

Volunteers particípate to both Summer and Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. Games Makers are  inspirational, open, respectful, team-focused, distinctive people and they have a ‘can do’ attitude. All volunteers made succesful results and showed the great feeling of being part of such a great event, for most of them is one of the best experiences of their lives.

They show the real values of the Olympic games.

References:

Free topic post: ERASMUS

December 3, 2012 Leave a comment

ERASMUS

The ERASMUS program (EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students) was created in 1987 in order to promote the Students Exchange programs of the countries of the European Union. and, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. In 1995 this program was integrated in a program with bigger magnitude, called Socrates. Finally in the year 2000, the whole program was re-called Socrates II. This ultimate program focuses more on develop the academic cooperation between universities from different countries and improve the academic recognition inside the European Union. Read more…

Maya Angelou

“Puede que tengas que enfrentarte a muchas derrotas pero nunca debes acabar derrotado”. The hard life of this African-American woman is summarized in this phrase.  She was born in St. Louis (Missouri) the 1928. Her childhood was full of hard times. Her brother and she had to live for a long time with her ​​grandmother because her parents’s divorce. The 10 years spent with her grandmother in Stamps (Arkansas) provided her the most of the materials she would use in her famous autobiography: I know why the caged bird sings. In the book describes what it meant to be a colored girl in the state of Arkansas in the decades of 30 and 40.

When she was 8 years old she was raped by her mother’s boyfriend. After revealing the name of the attacker, Angelou had to go through trials and later for the murder of the rapist caused by her uncles. So, she realized that her words had the power to kill and she spent 5 years in silence. Decades later, the writer said: “Escribo para recuperar la voz negra y para todos aquellos oidos que quieran oirla”. Later, during her adolescence she had a brief drop in prostitution and she also got into the drug world.

But her political activism and her commitment to literature enabled her to get out of this deep well. Over the 60 and 70 decades Angelou was involved in the struggle for civil rights of her people. On the other hand, she traveled to several African countries where she worked as editor of newspapers and collaborate on humanitarian projects.

In addition to his autobiography, Angelou is a great writer of poems, here goes a poem based on his book:

I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

The free bird leaps

on the back of the win

and floats downstream

till the current ends

and dips his wings

in the orange sun rays

and dares to claim the sky.

But a bird that stalks

down his narrow cage

can seldom see through

his bars of rage

his wings are clipped and

his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with fearful trill

of the things unknown

but longed for still

and is tune is heard

on the distant hillfor the caged bird

sings of freedom.

The free bird thinks of another breeze

an the trade winds soft through the sighing trees

and the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn

and he names the sky his own.

But a caged bird stands on the grave of dreams

his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream

his wings are clipped and his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with a fearful trill

of things unknown

but longed for still

and his tune is heard

on the distant hill

for the caged bird

sings of freedom.

References:

Sui Sin Far

Students of Modern Languages ​​2 we had to make some presentations on each character who appear in the book of Aitor Ibarrola “Entre dos mundos”. My group had to make the work about Sui Sin Far, Canadian short story writer, journalist, and essayist. The work was difficult because there is not a lot of information about this important woman in the history of China. But it has been very interesting to know about her and learn about the things that I did.

To learn about Sui Sin Far:

Sui Sin Far (the pseudonym of Edith Maude Eaton) is regarded as the first fiction writer of Asian descent to achieve professional publication in the Americas. The child of a British father and part-Chinese mother, Far’s stories focus on the experiences of Chinese immigrants to the United States and Canada. In her short stories, Far countered popular stereotypes of Chinese immigrants and spoke against racial prejudice. She frequently focused on the unique position of Eurasians like herself, of mixed Western and Asian descent, who are often excluded from both Anglo and Asian communities. Far published numerous short stories, sketches, essays, and articles in popular magazines throughout the United States. Mrs. Spring Fragrance (1912), a collection of short stories, was Far’s only volume of fiction to be published during her lifetime. Although somewhat recognized as a noteworthy writer, Far’s work was largely ignored by critics from the time of her death until the 1980s, when the burgeoning field of Asian American studies led to a resurgence of critical interest in her work. Her work has been made available to a modern readership with the 1995 publication of Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings, a compilation of Far’s stories, sketches, and essays.

Apart from learning about Sui Sin Far, we aldo know her works. The most important book she wrote is called Mrs. Spring Fragance, here goes a little pharagraph which talks about it:

When Mrs. Spring Fragrance first arrived in Seattle, she was unacquainted with even one word of the American language. Five years later her husband, speaking of her, said: “There are no more American words for her learning.” And everyone who knew Mrs. Spring Fragrance agreed with Mr. Spring Fragrance. Mr. Spring Fragrance, whose business name was Sing Yook, was a young curio merchant. Though conservatively Chinese in many respects, he was at the same time what is called by the Westerners, “Americanized.” Mrs. Spring Fragrance was even more “Americanized.”

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