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Archive for May, 2012

El Mejor Data Mining

Un sistema de la UPV de ayuda a diagnosticar tumores cerebrales, mejor aportación tecnológica en unos premios sanitarios

Parece que el uso de la tecnología rompe fronteras, y el caso de Data Mining o Minería de Datos sigue la misma estela. “El sistema CURIAM BT, desarrollado por investigadores del Grupo de Informática Biomédica (IBIME-ITACA) de la Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), ha sido reconocido con el galardón a la mejor aportación tecnológica en los premios Sanitaria 2000 en la Comunitat Valenciana, según ha informado la institución académica en un comunicado.” Este proyecto ha sido financiado por el Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (FIS) y por la UPV.

El sistema CURIAM es un sistema genérico que ayuda a los médicos a realizar mejores diagnósticos gracias a su extensa base de datos y la posibilidad de comparar casos entre sí. Sin embargo, el CUARIAM BT (Brain tumour) consiste en un sofisticado software que les ayuda a detectar e identificar los tumores cerebrales de acuerdo a la Resonancia Magnética. Gracias a este revolucionario sistema, los diagnósticos tiene una mayor fiabilidad debido al menor margen de errores, además de permitir al paciente un tratamiento más adecuado a sus necesidades. El CURIAM BT está basado en la técnica de minería de datos, y permite extraer el conocimiento de los distintos tipos de datos clínicos y señales biomédicas (espectros de resonancia magnética correspondientes a las masas tumorales). Read more…

Lenguas románicas

May 30, 2012 1 comment

LENGUAS ROMANICAS:

Laurentino Rodríguez Contreras explica de donde provienen las lenguas románicas:

“La verdadera lengua matriz, que dio nacimiento a las lenguas romances, fue… el italiano, pero el italiano no proviene del latín como comúnmente se cree, si no que es, y esto forma parte también de su tesis, una lengua más antigua, desprendida en tiempos remotos del tronco itálico.”

De acuerdo con un experto de la Comisión Europea en lengua francesa, que es Jean-François Baldi, asegura lo siguiente:

“Hoy que las lenguas románicas pueden ser un “antídoto” contra la lengua “hegemónica”, el inglés, y por ello propuso que su estudio sea complementario al de la lengua franca anglosajona.”

Lo que quiere explicar este experto es que en el futuro se podrán abordar las lenguas románicas como el francés, portugués, español, catalán, gallego, italiano, rumano… No obstante, Baldi incidió en cuanto a la importancia de estudiar inglés como lengua además de otras lenguas. Al igual que Baldi, Hartung tambíén explica la importancia del inglés. El jefe de plurilingüismo de la Comisión Europea, Harald Hartung afirmó que:

“Es necesario tener una lengua franca. como el inglés. La Unión Europea no impondrá una lengua, aunque el 90 por ciento de los estudiantes aprende el inglés como primera lengua.”

Al mismo tiempo Hartung expone que la Unión Europea  podrá fomentar y disponer de un servicio que se trata de la interpretación y traducción de 23 lenguas oficiales románicas, mientras que 40 serán no oficiales.

Al estudiar una lengua románica, de acuerdo con Edison R., cada persona lo estudia de diferente manera. Él mismo explica el estudio de la lengua francesa:

“Cada quien tiene su historia de amor y de odios hacia el francés, con sus logros y sus decepciones. Yo opiné que en relación al idioma era necesario aprenderlo dos veces. La primera vez es el francés que se aprende en los cursos normales de idioma. Luego de un tiempo en estos cursos, llega un momento en que uno cree que ya sabe francés. En efecto, entiende casi todo lo que dice la profesora y la profesora entiende casi todo lo que uno dice. Además, se pueden comprender los textos escritos y se pueden hacer composiciones sin cometer demasiados errores. Entonces piensa uno: ¡Ya sé francés!”

Referencias:

Sare sozialen eta identitate digitalen abantailak!!

Gaur egun, Internet ezinbestekoa bilakatu da. Izan ere, edonork dauka eskuragarri eta honen bidez, beharrezko dugun informazioa aurkitu dezakegu. Internet edozein gauzatarako erabil dezakegu, bai jentearekin kontaktuan jartzeko, bai lan mundurako eta bai aisialdi gisa erbailtzeko. Honen barruan, sare sozialak aurkitu ditzakegu. Denbora aurrera joan ahala, sare sozialak garatzen joan dira gero eta erabiltzaile gehiago dituztelarik. Elementu hauek pertsona taldeek osatutako estruktura sozialak dira. Erlazio mota ezberdinez konektatuta daude, besteak beste, adiskidetasuna, ahaidetasuna, interes komun edota ezagutzak elkarbanatzen.Barneko sare sozialak lanerako erraminta bat gehiago bilakatu daitezke. Plataforma hauek ekartzen dituzten onuretako bat, langileen arteko senidetasun eta lagunkoitasuna da. Izan ere, esperientzien eta ezagutzen elkarbanatzea ekartzen dute.

Guzti hau,  Pablo G. Bejerano-k azaltzen digu baina batez ere, enpresetan duten erabilera. Izan ere, bere itzetan, Facebook eta gainerako sare sozialek beraiek duten abantaila aprobetxatzea egin die konpainiei beraien eta langileen onurarako.

Sare sozialak, elkarrekin kontaktuan jartzeko erabil daitezke, hau da, aisialdirako erabili daitezke. Baina, ez da soilik aisialdi gisa erabiltzen, lan mundurako ere oso erabilgarria da. Adibidez, proiektu bat aurrera eramateko orduan, bakoitzak bere iritzia emateko balio du leku jakin batean elkarrekin geratzeko beharrik izan gabe. Honez gain, edozein lan motarako erabili daitezke sare sozial hauek talde osoaren iritzia eskuragarri edukita.

Sare sozialen artean honako hauek aurkitu ditzakegu:

Sare sozialez gain, Interneten barruan identitate digitala aukitu dezakegu. Juan José de Haro-k dio, identitate digitala ez dela guri buruz agertzen dena bilaketa bat egiterakoan, baizik eta bakoitzari buruz trasmititzen den ideia Internet zehar. Bere hitzetan, pertsona batzuk daude non  Internet bidez eskutatzen diren media publikotik desagertzeko baina ez direla konturatzen beste batzutek eraikitzen dutela beraien irudia. 

Honez gain, Tomás Delclós-ek dioen bezala  enpresek ere erabiltzen dute batez ere. Kontu pertsonalen bidez enpresa batzuek beraien produktuak promozionatzeko edota informazioa elkarbanatzeko erabiltzen dute.

Laburdbilduz, lehen esan bezala, Internet oso baliagarria da bai aisialdirako eta bai lanaren munduarentzako. Izan ere, egunetik egunera gero eta aurrerapen gehiago dago eta honek hobekuntzak ekarri ditzako lan munduan eta baita sozializatzeko orduan ere.

Informazio iturriak:

Mendeley: A new good tool for our computers

Mendeley is actually a very sophisticated research management tool and free to use. It has had a great deal of developments since it was invented until now.

It was founded in November 2007 and is based in London. The first public beta version was released in August 2008. The team comprises researchers, graduates, and open source developers from a variety of academic institutions, although the software itself is not open source. The company’s investors include the former executive chairman of Last.fm, the former founding engineers of Skype, and the former Head of Digital Strategy at Warner Music Group, as well as academics from Cambridge and Johns Hopkins University.

According to an article which was written by Xenia on the September 4th of the 2009, she points out that Mendeley is just a new fun toy. Although she recognizes that Mendeley is a good tool either for scientist or people who are interested on that topic. She wants to show somehow this gadget can be used as an e-learning tool for like-minded non-academics and students alike even if it is more presented for researchers.
Like all social networking systems, Mendeley will improve its performance and practicality with the growth of its user base.

Mendeley has got some many features;
• The Mendeley site has a clean look, so it doesn’t overwhelm new users with cluttered information or distract and interrupt the workflow, also the software is easy to install and use.
• Mendeley indexes and organizes your PDF files and research papers like a playlist. You can tag, search and filter your documents and group them into labeled collections. Mendeley integrates an academic software component with a Web-based research network, which also functions as a backup system that’s in sync with the digital bibliography on your computer. This means you can work on your project or paper at home, on a shared campus library computer or anywhere you have Internet access.
• You can import old document details and citations through CiteULike and add new ones including, when possible, PDF files with a click of a bookmarklet in your browser.
• You can create bibliographies in Word and OpenOffice.
• Ultimately the makers of Mendeley would like to enable the program to automatically extract metadata and cited references from PDFs.

Her favourite features are the next ones:

• Full-text search, viewer and annotation tool: Mendeley lets you highlight and annotate your PDF files with sticky notes in the internal PDF-viewer of Mendeley desktop. The new version will enable the synchronization of the annotated versions with colleagues. This, in believes is a great potential for collaborative work, just as

• Sharing academic papers: For university. Mendeley might be enriching for different kinds of open educational projects, by enabling users to communicate about their reading habits and sharing their thoughts about specific text-passages in the assigned literature. Mendeley will eventually implement a group feature for the shared document collections, so that filesharing could be discussed in a blog-like or wiki-like format (German Interview with a co-founder of Mendeley).
• Research statistics: Since Mendeley anonymously collects and analyzes the data users provide through the use of their online bibliographies on Mendeley Web, Mendeley can share information about the reading behavior of the scientific community and research trends with you. This isn’t as trivial as it sounds and might change how research is conducted and eventually mediated. This is a major reason for me to use Mendeley; it might change “the journal impact factor through real-time transparent statistics.”
• Recommendation engines: Mendeley can have educational value by being a virtual teacher, who can point to undiscovered intellectual terrain within the field of the students interest.
• Open-Access: Although Mendeley will not be a platform to share documents as Napster shared music files, researchers are encouraged to post their own papers on their profiles, thereby making them publicly available.

So to sum up, we could say that Xenia is really impressed by Mendelay. She is enticed by the perspectives Mendeley gives for working and learning.
She also claims that not only is it a handy referencing tool, there are other products equally usable, it might change how scientists research and communicate with each other. Thereby, Mendeley can enhance university-level e-learning by anonymously aggregating metadata of the papers read and making the statistics available to its users and in future even making recommendations.

REFERENCES:

• The page of Moodle on Twitter: http://twitter.com/#!/moodle

• Moodle Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendeley

• Link which is based on this work:
Read more: http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/software-review-mendeley-mdash-the-free/#ixzz1cw0UR9ih

• Picture of Mendelay’s icon http://www.google.es/imgres?q=MENDELEY&um=1&hl=es&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=569&noj=1&tbm=isch&tbnid=I2l53yqzrXjcfM:&imgrefurl=http://www.aquic.com.ar/page/3/&docid=GCaTBDP-nGsltM&imgurl=http://www.aquic.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/Mendeley_Logo_highres.png&w=377&h=345&ei=Sp62ToeCJumI4gS9vNHvAw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=440&sig=110845177832462444796&page=1&tbnh=115&tbnw=111&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0&tx=56&ty=32

• Picture of Mendeley in the computer : http://www.google.es/imgres?q=MENDELEY&um=1&hl=es&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=569&noj=1&tbm=isch&tbnid=jy14R9jxWUV33M:&imgrefurl=http://mendeley-desktop.softonic.com/&docid=iZEHpjKdGcGkaM&imgurl=http://imagenes.es.sftcdn.net/es/scrn/86000/86094/mendeley-desktop-32.jpg&w=700&h=496&ei=Sp62ToeCJumI4gS9vNHvAw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=398&sig=110845177832462444796&page=1&tbnh=108&tbnw=153&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&tx=83&ty=62

Informatika erabiltzen!!

Informatika ordenagailuen bidez egiten den informazioaren tratamendu automatikoa posible egiten duen ezagutza zientifiko eta teknikoen multzoa da. Hitz hau frantsesetik dator, frantsesek sortu baitzuten “informatique”-ren kontzeptua, hau da, informatika. Informatika garatzen joan da denbora aurrera joan ahala gizakiak lan arruntak egin ahal izateko, modu eraginkor, ordenatu eta azkar batean. 

Josemi-k dioen bezala, informatika informazioaren erabilera automatikoa duen zientzia da. Tratamentu automatiko hau da datuen manipulazioa eta kalkulo konplexuen exekuzio arina  bultzatu eta erraztu duena.

Joseulis Fox-ek dioen bezala, ordenagailu edo konputadoren inkorporazioak bulegoetan, sistema ofimatikoen iraultza ekarri zuen. Izan ere, makinek komunikazioen eta informazio elkarbanatze instantaneoa lankideen, baliabide eta tadeen artean posible egiten dute.

Deustuko Unibertsitatean irakasgai hau martxan dago. Izan ere, gizarte eta giza zientzietako graduan irakasgai hau ematen da eta oinarrizko jakintzak eskuratzeko balio digu, hau da, irakasgai honek etorkizun baterako beharko ditugun jakintzak eskuratzera eramango gaitu. Adibidez, irakasle izan nahi duenak irakasgai hau oinarrizkoa izango du bere proiektuak aurkezteko orduan eta irakasgairen bat azaltzeko orduan.

Informatika irakasgaian, joan den urtean (1.en mailan) microsoft word, excel, power point eta access-en oinarrizko elementuak erabiltzen ikasi genituen:

  1. Micrsoft word: Microsoft word testuak prozesatzeko software bat da eta Microsoft enperesak sortu zuen eta gaur egun ofimatikan sartuta dator.
  2. Microsoft excel: Microsoft excel kalkuluen orriak manejatzeko aplikazio bat da. Programa hau ere Microsoft-ek garatua da eta finantza eta kontabilitate lanetan erabltzen da normalean.
  3. Power point: Power point presentazioentzako programa bat da eta normalean irakaskuntza, negozioak… bezalako gaietarako erabiltzen da.
  4. Access: Access Microsoft Windows-en sistema operatiboentzako erlazioa duen datu baseen gestioaren sistema bat da.

Oraingo urtean (2.en malan) batez ere web orrialdeeri eman diegu garrantzia besteak beste,  twitter, linkedin, google plus, wordpress eta beste horrenbeste.

Hauetako gehienak sare sozialak direla ikus dezakegu eta sare sozial ezberdinen bidez komunikatu gaitezkeela bata bestearekin ere. Sare sozial hauek ez dira lagun artean komunikatzeko soilik erabiltzen, ez horixe! Sare sozial hauek, negozio munduan ere erabilgarriak dira, hau da, bata bestearen ikuspuntuak eta ideiak elkar banatzeko ere balio dute eta horrela negoziorako plan bat aurrera eraman.

Laburbilduz, informatika irakasgaia etorkizun baterako oso erabilgarria dela esan dezaket eta erabilgarria izateaz gain, erraza da maneiatzeko, beraz, edozein fakultaterako, edozein gradutarako… ezinbestekoa dela esan beharra daukat eta horregatik dut gustuko irakasgai hau!

Informazio iturriak:

Categories: Web Communication

Twitter’s beginning

Haven´t you asked yourself about Twitter? Who created it or when it was made? I have found some pages talking about the answers to these questions. Firstly I found Techcrunch that talks about Jack Dorsey, one of the creators of Twitter. In that page we found the comments of Dorsey about the creation of the Social Network:

Dorsey also reveals that the reason they initially droped the vowels out of “Twitter” was to try and get the SMS shortcode. …But Teen People already owned it. (Mig Siegler; Sunday, March 13th, 2011)

Apart from what Mig Siegler (the journalist of Techcrunch web page) sais, there appear a lot of tweets of Dorsey and he mention the Twitter of his partners creators:

The team was small: @noah came up with the name & managed, @florian & I programmed, @biz designed, all under the roof of Odeo & @ev. #twttr (Jack Dorsey, 13/03/2011)

If we continue reading we are going to find an interesting text which talks about Twitter:

Twitter, founded by Jack Dorsey, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 (launched publicly in July 2006), is a social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to post their latest updates. An update is limited by 140 characters and can be posted through three methods: web form, text message, or instant message. The company has been busy adding features to the product like Gmail import and search. They recently launched a new site section called “Explore” for external and third party tools that interact with Twitter and a new visualization tool called Twitter Blocks.

References:

Hego Poloaren konkista

Roald Amundsen norvegiarrak Hego Polora heldu zen orain dela ehun urte, 1911ko abenduaren 14an, eta kontatzeko bueltatu zen. Bere lehiakidea, Robert Falcon Scott britaniarrak , Lurreko puntu australenera heldu zen hilabete bat geroaago baina bueltako bidean, gosea, neketasuna eta temperatura baxuak bera eta bere laguntzaileekin amaitu zuen. Hauek bi espedizio bihurtu ziren.

“Abenduaren 14ko goizean, sekulako eguraldia egiten zuen, guztia Polora heltzeko prestatutako egongo balitza bezala. Ez nago guztiz ziur, baina gosaria ohiz baino arinago jan genuela uste dut eta hortik gutxira dendatik atera ginen.”  Roald Amundsen esploratzaile norvegiarrak 1911ko abenduaren 14 horretan seinale onarekin altxatu zen, bere egunerokoan kontatzen duen bezala.

Egun hartan, bere bidelagun ziren Olav Bjaaland, Oskar Wisting, Sverre Hassel eta Helmer Hanssen-ekin batera Hego Polora heltzen zen lehen pertsona bihurtuko zela konbentzituta zegoen. Amundsen ez zegoen erratuta eta, ordu batzuk geroago, arratsaldeko hiruretan, 54 eguneko bidaia eta gero, Hego Polora iritsi ziren.

Amundsen-ek beti izan zuen Ipar Polora joateko ametsa, horregatik gaztetatik oso gogor entrenatu zen, baina 1909ko irailean, Robert Peary aurreratu zitzaiola jakin zuenean, bere helmuga Lurreko puntu australenera guztiz aldatu zuen.

“De pequeño, ya sabia que queria ser explorador y se fue formando para lograrlo. Su familia tenia una naviera, pero se enrolo como marinero ene l barco de otra compañia para aprender el oficio desde abajo. Dormia con la ventana abierta y en el suelo para acostrumbrarse al frio y se impuso un programa de preparacion fisica para estar en la mejor forma posible. Era un explorador muy adelantado para su epoca” (Javier Cacho, idazle eta zientzialaria, Amundsen-Scott, duelo en la Antartida. La carrera al polo sur  Ed Forcola.)

Aurkako taldea, Robert Falcon Scott militar britainiarrak burutua, baita ere lortu zuen baina hilabete bat geroago, 1912ko urtarrilaren 17an, eta bueltako bidean bizia galdu zuten ibilbide bihurgunetsu baten ostean.

“¡Se ha producido una catastrofe!; ¡Amundsen y sus noruegos nos han precedido! La decepcion es garnde; me conduelo sobre todo por mis valientes compañeros” idatzi zuen Scottek bere egunerokoetan (Diario del Polo Sur, Iterfolio)

Urtarrilaren 16a egun txarra izan zen: Scott eta bere gizonak(Edward Wilson, Henry Bowers, Edgar Evans eta Lawrence Oates) lera eta eski markak, txakurren oinatzak eta kanpaleku baten aztarnak ikustatu zituzten. Txarrena espero zuten. Hurrengo egunean, Hego Poloan bertan, atsekabe handiarekin beraien susmoak benetakoak zirela egiaztatu zuten, Amundsen aurreratu zitzaien.

Horrela, Amundsenen balentriaren 100 urte ostean munduko espedizio asko batu dira Antartidan omenaldia egiteko helburuarekin eta norvegiarrentzat ospakizun handiko eguna bihurtu da.

Iturriak:

-www.magazinedigital.com(Egilea: Rosa M. Bosh)

Erreferentziak:

-Javier Cacho, Amundsen-Scott, duelo en la Antartida. La carrera al polo sur. (Ed.Forcola)

-Angel Sanz, editor de Interfolio.Bi esploratzaileen egunerokoak argitaratu zituen gaztelaniaz.

Categories: History

Maya Angelou

“Puede que tengas que enfrentarte a muchas derrotas pero nunca debes acabar derrotado”. The hard life of this African-American woman is summarized in this phrase.  She was born in St. Louis (Missouri) the 1928. Her childhood was full of hard times. Her brother and she had to live for a long time with her ​​grandmother because her parents’s divorce. The 10 years spent with her grandmother in Stamps (Arkansas) provided her the most of the materials she would use in her famous autobiography: I know why the caged bird sings. In the book describes what it meant to be a colored girl in the state of Arkansas in the decades of 30 and 40.

When she was 8 years old she was raped by her mother’s boyfriend. After revealing the name of the attacker, Angelou had to go through trials and later for the murder of the rapist caused by her uncles. So, she realized that her words had the power to kill and she spent 5 years in silence. Decades later, the writer said: “Escribo para recuperar la voz negra y para todos aquellos oidos que quieran oirla”. Later, during her adolescence she had a brief drop in prostitution and she also got into the drug world.

But her political activism and her commitment to literature enabled her to get out of this deep well. Over the 60 and 70 decades Angelou was involved in the struggle for civil rights of her people. On the other hand, she traveled to several African countries where she worked as editor of newspapers and collaborate on humanitarian projects.

In addition to his autobiography, Angelou is a great writer of poems, here goes a poem based on his book:

I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

The free bird leaps

on the back of the win

and floats downstream

till the current ends

and dips his wings

in the orange sun rays

and dares to claim the sky.

But a bird that stalks

down his narrow cage

can seldom see through

his bars of rage

his wings are clipped and

his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with fearful trill

of the things unknown

but longed for still

and is tune is heard

on the distant hillfor the caged bird

sings of freedom.

The free bird thinks of another breeze

an the trade winds soft through the sighing trees

and the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn

and he names the sky his own.

But a caged bird stands on the grave of dreams

his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream

his wings are clipped and his feet are tied

so he opens his throat to sing.

The caged bird sings

with a fearful trill

of things unknown

but longed for still

and his tune is heard

on the distant hill

for the caged bird

sings of freedom.

References:

Sui Sin Far

Students of Modern Languages ​​2 we had to make some presentations on each character who appear in the book of Aitor Ibarrola “Entre dos mundos”. My group had to make the work about Sui Sin Far, Canadian short story writer, journalist, and essayist. The work was difficult because there is not a lot of information about this important woman in the history of China. But it has been very interesting to know about her and learn about the things that I did.

To learn about Sui Sin Far:

Sui Sin Far (the pseudonym of Edith Maude Eaton) is regarded as the first fiction writer of Asian descent to achieve professional publication in the Americas. The child of a British father and part-Chinese mother, Far’s stories focus on the experiences of Chinese immigrants to the United States and Canada. In her short stories, Far countered popular stereotypes of Chinese immigrants and spoke against racial prejudice. She frequently focused on the unique position of Eurasians like herself, of mixed Western and Asian descent, who are often excluded from both Anglo and Asian communities. Far published numerous short stories, sketches, essays, and articles in popular magazines throughout the United States. Mrs. Spring Fragrance (1912), a collection of short stories, was Far’s only volume of fiction to be published during her lifetime. Although somewhat recognized as a noteworthy writer, Far’s work was largely ignored by critics from the time of her death until the 1980s, when the burgeoning field of Asian American studies led to a resurgence of critical interest in her work. Her work has been made available to a modern readership with the 1995 publication of Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings, a compilation of Far’s stories, sketches, and essays.

Apart from learning about Sui Sin Far, we aldo know her works. The most important book she wrote is called Mrs. Spring Fragance, here goes a little pharagraph which talks about it:

When Mrs. Spring Fragrance first arrived in Seattle, she was unacquainted with even one word of the American language. Five years later her husband, speaking of her, said: “There are no more American words for her learning.” And everyone who knew Mrs. Spring Fragrance agreed with Mr. Spring Fragrance. Mr. Spring Fragrance, whose business name was Sing Yook, was a young curio merchant. Though conservatively Chinese in many respects, he was at the same time what is called by the Westerners, “Americanized.” Mrs. Spring Fragrance was even more “Americanized.”

References:

Internet eta sare sozialen arriskuak

Sare sozialek badute bere alde txarra deskribatuta: erabilera desegokia, obsesibo edo irizpide gabekoa, auto-estima arazoak nabarmendu ditzake. Teknologia berrien berehalakotasuna eta ugaltzeko gaitasunak edozein egoera kontrolatzeko zailtasunak ematen ditu.

“Marta G. 48 lagun ditu Facebooken”. “Hau 92 pertsonari gustatzen zaie”. “Nire profila gustatzen bazaizu bozkatu hemen”. Interneteko sare popularra den Facebookek ematen dituen konsigna batzuk dira. Medikuntzaren esparruan, sare sozialen erabilera okerrarekin erlazionaturiko buruko osasunerako arrisku bat dokumentatu da “depresion Facebook” deitua.

Psikiatra batzuek hau gazteen artean sortzen den depresio modalitate berri bat dela kontsideratzen dute eta gazte askok sare sozialekin jasaten duten obsesio graduan islatzen dela. Desoreka Pediatriako Akademia Amerikarraren Pediatrics aldizkarian azaldua izan da.

Facebook, sare sozial gehienetan bezala, ondo pasatzen ari diren, festetara, bidaiatu eta argazkiak igotzen, arrakasta eta lagun kantitate handia duten pertsonak ageri dira. Auto-estima arazoak dituzten nerabe batzuek txarto sentitzen dira ospe hori lortzeko ezgai ikusten baitute bere burua eta porrot bat bezala bizi dira.

Es como si estuvieran solos o ignorados en una fiesta. El problema es que Facebook es como un gran certamen de popularidad a ver quien obtiene más solicitudes de amistad o que fotografías es la más seleccionada y, además algunos reciben comentarios desagradables que empeoran su estado anímico, aunque no se trate de un ciberacoso. (Santiago García, pediatra del hospital Sant Joan de Deu)

Adituek gazte askok sare sozialak gehiegi erabiltzen dutela uste dute, beraiekin erlazionatu, informatu, maitemindu eta lagunak egiten baitituzte baina baita ere adiskideak galdu, loturak apurtu, zurrumurruak jasan eta kritikak jaso ditzakezu. Interneten gehiegi bizi diren nerabeak sare sozialen Belen Esteban antzeko bat bihurtzen dira: pertsonai mediatikoa, sareen gauza onen eta txarren eraginpean jarri.

Espainiar nerabeen bi hirurenak sare sozialen baten erabiltzailea dela kalkulatu da. Horien artean Tuenti eta Facebook nabarmentzen dira.

Las tecnologias pueden ser proclives al exceso, a la adiccion, la dependencia, la suplantacion de la, el estres y, por supuesto, tambien al aislamiento y la depresion, pero este tipo de comportamientos no es exclusivo de la tecnologia y no es provocado por el propio medio en si mismo. Lo que hace la red es aflorar y retroalimentar un problema que ya existia y que puede tener causas diversas y complejas. (Eva Bach, pedagogoa eta gazte eta teknologian aditua)

Amaitzeko, Journal of Preventive Medicine argitaraturiko ikerketa kanadar batek nerabeek egunean soilik  4 ordu ordenagailuaren aurrean egoteagatik jokabide arriskutsuagoak hartzen dituztela adierazi zuen. Honakoak dira jokabide horiek:

-         13 urte baino lehen erlazio sexualak izatea

-         Babesik gabe erlazio sexualak izatea.

-         Tristura eta apatia iraunkorra

-         Pentsaera edo buruaz beste egiteko saiakerak.

-          Elikaduraren jokabidean gorabeherak (anorexia, bulimia)

-         Ariketa fisikoaren txikiagotzea (eta obesitatearen handiagotzea)

-         Sarri erre

-         Alkoholaren gehiegizko kontsumoa

-         Drogen kontsumoa, marihuanarena bereziki.

-         Borroka konstanteak klase kideekin edo agresioak.

-         Armak eramatea

Ikerketa honen arabera, Internetaren gehiegizko erabilera telebista eta bideo-kontsolak baino jokabide arriskutsuagoak sortzen ditu, edukian  sartzean ez baitago kanpoko kontrolik, telebista programak eta bideo-kontsolak berriz, badago zenbait legegintza abusuetatik babesten dituena.

Iturria

Magazine  (Egilea:Carmen Giro)

Erreferentzia

- Santiago Garcia- Tonel (Pediatra del hospital San Joan de Deu)

- Eva Bach (Pedagoga y experta en jovenes y tecnologia)

Categories: Social networks

New way of trendding

Zara reinvents Trendding; we have to understand this concept (trendding) as creating trend.Inditex empire, has been able to make this rather difficult task wisely, quikly and efficiently.

Above all with its first store: Zara.It is the most famous spanish brand ,thank to its concept of “fast fashion” which is wearing the world. Almost all of Zara’s central facilities are located in Arteixo and the permanent decision, sice it was created, has been to continue there in Galicia,Spain.

The most important secret of any trendding company and in that case Zara’s industry is: discretion.There are 5000 stores of their different brands: Zara, Pull & Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home and Uterque. Group’s headquarter Zara, born 40 years ago and its last but not least project, is the new opened store in Southafrica, the last country from 80 where it is located.The owner of this empire is Amancio Ortega, the seventh fortune according to Forbes magazine, due to his sucessful business idea.

To discover the secret universe of Zara is a binary strategy:The accesible fashion in a uniform universe and the creativity of its commercial “savoir faire”.So, discretion is key; hermetecism and inscrutability in order to be the first and the only one, in creating “chic objects of desire”.

Each season for times a year, since 40 years ago they have been creating full fashion collections, and each of its articles (bags, skirts ,dresses ,shooes , boots ,belts ,clutches ,jeans ,trowsers ,t-shirts ,shirts ,jumpers ,cardigans ,ties jackets….).

On the other hand, speed is the other secret for their success. Everything is plan in order to make in a record time, to be further closed to trend. Zara’s production is concentrated its 60% in Europe and so, if any article don’t succeed it is automatically replaced by any other.

Nowadays the last exhilarating experience of Zara is the opening stores in Asia and the “online store”; both projects are really hazardous bet. On top of that, “sale volume”has risen up dramatically with those two new experiences.

Zara do not make advertisment in (magazines,publicity walls,news,radio,spots…)they have never invest on this.Despite they have constructed a powerful and personal identity.Now with their Web Communication Plan based on their online stores; but never advertising trougth the net.
An expandig business in Asia has been quikly but also careful, following with the Amancio Ortega’s philosophy of “step by step”.
Finnaly,I wouldn’t finish this post without saying that zara wolud’s exist without “group working”.In their enormous companies fashion designers coexist with models,publicists,dressmarkers,stylers…there are no hierarchies.Nobody orders over otherone.They organized in working-groups, each groups in independent and doesn’t know the group which is carrying out others.Groups are competence between them.So, this working method encourages and motivates workers which have been excelled themselves since many decades ago.
To conclude as we have said before: There are no favouritisms, Coud be this the best keeped secret of Zara’s Success?

Categories: Uncategorized

WCPLAN-PIPERRAK

Piperrak is a a rock-punk music band created in “La Rivera” (Spain). We have little information about this group even if it is well-known. They first started playing music in the decade of the 90s in the sorroundings of the Basque area. The band was composed by Josetxu (from Lodosa), Txitxarro (from Alcanadre), Rufo (from Pradejón) and Fermin at the beginning of their career. At the moment Fermin has been substituded to Jabitxu. The name “Piperrak” means peppers in Basque, a very well-kwnown vegetable here.

Now I shall talk about the rough cut. The first one they brought out was in 1990 with the name of “Ahorkate”. Two years later “La Ribera Rock&Roll” had a good success in all Basque country. We can mention some names of the songs like “We don’t care”, “La hora 0″, “Deskontrol” of the first rough cut and of the second one we can find “Potrotaino”, “Okupados”. This last succeded.

In 1994, in hands of Suicide records, would appeared their first official disc whose name was “Arde Ribera”. It contains some songs like “Cualquier día” and “Mi primer amor” which are well-known not just in the Basque Country also in Spain.

In 1996, appeared their followed work which was called “Los muertos de siempre”. We can see that the name is rather frightening but it is just the way the play their songs, which are too hard.
“Los muertos de siempre” was also in hands of the suicide records. However,it was produced by Fernando Madina the singer of Reincidentes another rock-punk basque band.

In 1997, one of the members of the group decided giving up the band and was substituted by Jabitxu who already sings at the moment. He plays the guitar.

After the concert they gave on the 19th January of 1998 in Durango which was a live concert gain in supporters.
Therefore in 2007, they came up with the idea of recording in video a live concert. Durango was the elected place for it. The managed to have around 8000 people, just a huge amount of fans, we can see.
By then, they did not know whether they will continue playing music. Although after seeing how much followers they had, they decided to continue.

In 2009, was shot up “ La kemos liau”. We can see songs like “Demokrazia”, “Ke lo voy hacer” and “Akatu” between others.

To finish with we must know that the band is growing in its followers in all the state and all over the world. Actually, they are pretty known in Catalonia.

REFERENCES:

Categories: Uncategorized Tags: , ,

Babesturik al gaude Twitterren?

Microbloggingean oinarritzen den sare soziala da. Nahiz eta sare sozial honek oso denbora gutxi izan, erabiltzaile asko dauzka erregistratuta. Egunean 500.000 erabiltzaile gehitzen dira Twitter sarera. Hainbeste jendek erabilita are gehiago, pribatutasuna bermatua al dago bost urte eskas dituen sare sozial berri eta inobatzaile honetan? Alejandro Suarez Sánchez Ocañak, teknologia berrietan espezializatua denak, hau idatzi zuen bere blogean: “El usuario de las redes sociales muchas veces desconoce cómo utilizar las herramientas de protección o simplemente es descuidado y poco celosos de su intimidad, es en estos casos donde por un manejo indebido y seguramente no autorizado, la información de perfiles pasa a ser de conocimiento público en cientos de web, blogs y foros”. Read more…

El auge de las redes sociales en México atrae ataques de los narco

Según nos informa un periodico Mexicano las redes sociales están causando furor para los narcos en este mismo país. Un articulo publicado el día 29 de Septiembre del 2011 nos deja ver lo qué realmente conmovio a la ciudad de Nuevo Laredo en México.

María Macías de treinta y nuevo años de edad era una colaboradora adícta a las redes sociales y a todo lo que envolvio al entorno de los ordenadores. Desempeñaba el trabajo de directora de información.  Ella utilizaba Internet para denunciar la brutalidad de los capos de la droga en esta ciudad  fronteriza con  Estados Unidos, ya que éra una inmensa cantidad; pués bien la hicieron callar amenazandola y diciendo que la matarian.

Su cuerpo sin vida fué encontrado sin apenas haber pasado 24 horas, tras suscribirse al chat y ponerlo en vista de todos. Ella era crítica ante esos canallas que insensibles que ese mismo dia le quitaron la vida.

Cabe decir que tras ese día, no solo ella , sino que otras tres mujeres fueron asesinadas en menos de esa una semana lo que se podría recalcar que la Ciudad de Nuevo Laredo sigue teniendo muchisima coacción y debería ser investigada.

 En adición, desde el 2006, Tamaulipas es uno de los estados más duramente golpeados por la violencia del narcotráfico, que ha dejado unos 42,000 muertos, pero importante saber que no tiene nada que ver con las redes sociales que es de lo que trata este trabajo.

” Los narcos tienen gente experta en comunicaciones”,  dijo un periodista del estado de Tamaulipas, donde está la ciudad de Nuevo Laredo, que pidió el anonimato por miedo ha poder ser asaltado.

También, el periódico para el que trabajaba Macías declinó comentar sobre su muerte señalando :  “Monitorean los sitios de Internet, blogs, llamadas telefónicas y las famosas redes sociales todos los días”.

Para finalizar con éste tema podríamos concluir diciendo que México desde siempre ha sido un país demasiado limitado a lo que se refiere a libertad de expresión, sobre todo si la persona que está opuesta a cualquier idea es una mujer. Las mujeres son tratadas peor que los animales de hecho.

Referencias :

Categories: Uncategorized

Larunbateko kalimotxoa, igandeko ajea!

Larunbata da, gaueko 10ak, dutxa azkarra hartu, lagunak deitu eta etxetik irteten zara kalimotxo eta edalontzi bat Eroski-ko poltsa batean sarturik. Aste osoa eman duzu goizeko 7:30etan ohetik altzatzen eta klase jasanezinetara hurbiltzen. Baina gaur zure eguna da eta gauaren segundo bakoitza aprobetzatuko duzu, biharko eguna existituko ez balitz bezala biziko zara, bai!

Baina gaur igandea da, eguerdiko ordu biak eta zure gorputza atzo jasan egin zuenaz damutzen ari da, edan zenituen katxi guztietaz, erre zenuen sustantzia guztietaz…Ez zara oroitzen neska lirain horri esan zenionaz ezta? Amnesia esaten zaio horri mutil. Hain ozen ez hitz egiteko? Buruko mina duzula? Badakizu zergatik ezta? Baita egarria ere? Sintoma argi hauekin ez zara kapaz esateko zer duzun? Esan esan: AJEA dut.

Ajea, gazte gehienen lagun maitagarriena. Kendu ditzatela munduko neska guztiak, nire igandea gauza bakar bati dagokio: Ajea. Igande jasanezinak bizi ohi ditugu astero, zergatik? Ez dakigulako arazo hau nola sahiestu. Urteek eman didaten esperientzia baliatuz jarraitzeko errazak diren aholku batzuk aipatuko ditut:

  • Edan aurretik asko jatea eta edatea.
  • Edari isotonikoak hartzea.
  • B6 bitamina.
  • Zukuak edatea.
  • Ibuprofenoa.

Hau da ajearen eredu argia.

Beraz, argi ibili, kontuz izan eta jairik jai ibili nahi izatekotan eraman ezazu aipatutako aholku hauek txuleta txiki batean.

 

Bibliografia:

Categories: Uncategorized

Tumblelog

El Tumblelog es una variante muy actual pero menos estructurada de un blog muy ligada al microblogging.  Contienen pensamientos al azar, enlaces, imágenes y otro contenido, sin una temática definida excepto el hecho de que está realizado por un mismo autor. Cuando solamente contiene enlaces recibe el nombre de linklog.

Tenemos muy poca información sobre este tipo de microblogging pero está pensado que dentro de unos años será muy famoso entre los jóvenes.

Permite publicar texto, fotos, enlaces, citas, audio y videos. Es comparable con un weblog, pero más sencilla en cuanto a la administración y publicación de contenidos.

¿ Cómo crear un tumblelog?

Se necesita ingresarse el el siguiente enlace http://www.tumblr.com/, este paso es imprescindible, después completar los datos en el formulario del registro.

Al finalizar haga clic en el botón Sign up an start posting (regístrese y comience a publicar) para comenzar a utilizar los servicios de la herramienta.

 

REFERENCES:

  • Educar.com. Fecha de búsqueda 28 de diciembre del 2011 a las 8:00

http://www.educ.ar/educar/tutorial-de-tumblr.html

  •  La página de Tumblr. Fecha de búsqueda 28 de diciembre del 2011 a las 8:05

https://www.tumblr.com/

Social networks such as Facebook,Twenty or Twitter,create lazy individuals and social imbeciles.

BECOMING SOCIAL FOOLS

 

Trees are not the only ones who take roots. We are anchoring our lifes, our future, our world, to a simple and silly “computer and I relationship”. Social Networks are becoming our strongest roots, inmersing us into a lazy and non-working society.

Since social networks such as, Facebook, Twenty or Twitter appeared, our society has become much lazier and passive than it was a decade ago. This clearly means, that with the emergence of these kinds of networking sites, people is even less likely to hang out for the beach on a sunny day or go out with friends to take some coffee, due to the fact that the idea of staying in front of the PC sounds much more appealing to them than spending time in real life.

Therefore, as it seems that social networks have somehow worsen our lifestyle, we should consider whether it is worth wasting time posting comments on a friends wall or sending private messages to your best friend, when you have the possibility of talking to them face – to face.

I do believe that these sites play an important role when you want to keep in touch with someone you’ve met in summer holidays, or old school friends you don’t see in your everyday life routine. Nevertheless, we ought to learn how and with whom to share our personal information, our pictures and profile data, as the cyber world is pretty huge and keeps increasing more and more each day.

Moreover, from my point of view, I would say that, if you carry on adding friends to your social networks and keep on wasting time talking to people virtually instead of speaking with them in real time and place, you would not success in making new relationships, as you won’t know how to act, react or speak to a person face-to-face.

 

References:

http://babiloniaunahoraentrecriados.lacoctelera.net/post/2010/09/21/redes-sociales-y-su-influencia-la-sociedad-romina

http://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/media-society/social-networking-young-adults/

http://www.cracked.com/blog/6-scientific-reasons-social-networks-are-bad-society/

 

Multikulturalitatea eta kulturen arteko elkarrizketa

Kulturen Talka, Hungtingtonek eginiko artikulu bat da, bertan estatuen arteko gatazken zergaitia kultur desberdintasunean dagoela argidiatzen du eta iraganean estau politikoak baino, kultur estatuak egongo direla dio, beti beste kultur estauten aurka borrokan.

Hautatu dudan ikasgaia Multikulturalitatea da. Bertan, konpetentzia espesifikoetan esaten den moduan, gaur egungo gizarteko aniztasuna ulertu eta onartzeko helburua dugu. Hori gauzatu ahal izateko klasean ematen den informazioaz gain, testuak aztertu, talde lanak eta iruzkinak egiten ditugu.

Ideia horiek lan batean pilatu genituen eta atera genuen ondorio naguzia ematen digutenaz arago joan behar dugula da, izan ere, hasieran Hungtingtonek esaten zuenarekin erabat adoz geunden, baina kritikak aztertu ostean ikusi dugu zelan esaten zuena ez zen guztiz egiazkoa.

Ikasgai honetan ikasten den beste gauza garrantzitsu bat besteekiko eritsia eraikitzerakoan iturri eta ikuspuntu desberdinak kontuan hartu behar direla da. Hau Kulturen Talka deituriko artikulua irakurriz frogatu genuen.

Kulturen Talka, Hungtingtonek eginiko artikulu bat da, bertan estatuen arteko gatazken zergaitia kultur desberdintasunean dagoela argidiatzen du eta iraganean estau politikoak baino, kultur estatuak egongo direla dio, beti beste kultur estauten aurka borrokan.

Artikulu honek kritika anitz jaso zituen, eta gure lana kritika horiek aztertzea izan da. Kritikari sustuenen artean Fred Hallyday eta Edward Said ditugu, azkeneko honen esanetan, Hungtintonek komeni zaizkion “egiak” hartu ditu eta horiekin bere interesak defendatzen dituela dio. Fred Hallyda esaterako, kultur arteko gatazkaren aurka dago eta munduko tirabiren iraunkortasuna bi alderdietatik egiten den propagandaren bitartez bermatzen da, izan ere, gatazken atzetik asmo eskutuak daude, ala nola armagintza enpresek dituztenak.

Iturriak:

  • Huntington, Samuel P, 1993: “The Clash of Civilizations?” en Foreign Affairs 72:3, pp 22-50.
  • Edwar Said, Revista Alif Nun, (24/10/2010). El mito del “Choque de civilizaciones”
  • Fred Hallyday. “El islam y el mito del enfrentamiento”. Biblioteca del islam 2005.

Sare sozialak

Sare sozial guztiak berdinak direla uste al duzu? Bada, horrela pentsatzen baduzu oker zabiltza. Izan ere, denek funtzean helburu berdina izan arren, hots, komunikatzea, desberdintasun ugari dituzte haien artean.

Facebook, Tuenti eta Twitterbezalako sare sozialak, antzeko sare sozialak dira eta guztiek komunikatzeko helburua dute. Bestalde, beraien artean ezberdintasunak bilatzen hasiko baginateke, pribatutasunean aurkituko genituzke lehenego desberdintasunak.baginateke, pribatutasunean aurkituko genituzke lehenego desberdintasunak.

Bestalde, espainiar mailan, Tuenti da sare sozialik indartsuena, baina mundu mailan, Facebook da jaun eta jabe. Izan ere, Tuentik 2 milioi erabiltzaile ditu eta Facebook-ek 350 milioi. Alde nabarmen hau Tuenti sare itxia delako ematen da. Izan ere, Tuentin kontu bat irekitzeko, aurretiaz Tuentiko erabiltzaile den norbaitek gonbidatu behar zaitu.

Facebook-a aldiz, sare irekia da eta edonor sar daiteke bertan inolako gonbidapenik jaso gabe.

Facebook, Mark Zuckerbergek sorturiko webgune sozial bat da. Harvard Unibertsitateko ikasleentzat sortua izan zen hasiera batean, baina orain mundu guztiari irekia dagoen sare bat da. Erabiltzaile bakoitzak bertako sare ezberdinetan ibili daiteke, bere ikasketen araberako, bere bizitokiaren araberako edo bere lanaren araberakoa izan daitekeelarik, beste aukeren artean.

Facebook oso ezaguna bilakatu zen, negozio modelo berri bat zelako, baina iragarkietatik lortzen zituen mozkinak oso onak ez direnez, negozio modelo horrek ez du jaso espero genuen arrakasta.

Tuenti gazteei zuzendua eta web 2.0an oinarritutako lagun-sare bat da. Bertan, tuenti-orri pribatua eskura daiteke izena eman ondoren. Behin tuenti-orria lortuta, mugarik gabe argazkiak igo, norberaren blogean testuak idatzi eta besteen tuenti-orrietan edota argazkietan iruzkinak jar daitezke besteak beste.

Tuenti-orriaren pribatutasun-maila aukera daiteke: lagunek bakarrik ikusi ahal izatea, lagunek eta haien lagunek ikusi ahal izatea, edota pertsona guztiek ikusi ahal izatea.

Hemen, jendea oso erraz aurki daiteke: izen-abizenen bidez, lana edota doazen eskolaren izena bilatuz, bizilekua bilatuz, martxara irteten diren tokien bidez, lagunen lagunen bidez, e.a.

Beste alde batetik, Tuenti 24 urtetik beherakoei zuzendua dago eta Facebook-ak aldiz, ez du bataz besteko adin kopuru zehatzik.

Twitterreko erabiltzaileak ordea, 25 eta 50 urte bitartekoak dira.

Twitter sare sozial eta microblogging zerbitzua da, bere erabiltzaileei testu soileko mezuak bidaltzea ahalbidetzen diena, 140 karaktereko gehienezko luzerarekin. Eguneraketa hauek erabiltzailearen profilean erakusten dira, eta jasotzeko aukera hautatu duten beste erabiltzaileei ere bidaltzen zaie. Jatorrizko erabiltzaileak mezu hauek berak aukeratutako lagunei soilik bidaltzeko aukeratu dezake, edo erabiltzaile guztien eskura jarri ahal daitezke.

Facebook-ek ez du karaktere mugarik ostera.

Twitterrek komunikazioa, diseinua eta teknologiarekin lotuta dauden ikasketekin zerikusia du eta Facebook ostera, edozein pertsonari zuzendua dago.

Laburbilduz, Facebook, Tuenti eta Twitter sare sozialak ezberdintasun ugari izan arren beraien formatuetan, azken finean xede berbera partekatzen dutela ikus dezakegu, hots, pertsonek elkar komunikatzeko aukera eskaintzen digute.

Erreferentziak:

Best known works of the great masters of the Cinquecento

The Last Supper from Leonardo da Vinci.

The Last Supper measures 450 × 870 centimeters (15 feet × 29 ft) and covers an end wall of the dining hall at the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy. The theme was a traditional one for refectories, although the room was not a refectory at the time that Leonardo painted it. The main church building had only recently been completed (in 1498), but was remodeled by Bramante, hired by Ludovico Sforza to build a Sforza family mausoleum. The painting was commissioned by Sforza to be the centerpiece of the mausoleum. The lunettes above the main painting, formed by the triple arched ceiling of the refectory, are painted with Sforza coats-of-arms. The opposite wall of the refectory is covered by the Crucifixion fresco by Giovanni Donato da Montorfano, to which Leonardo added figures of the Sforza family in tempera. (These figures have deteriorated in much the same way as has The Last Supper.) Leonardo began work on The Last Supper in 1495 and completed it in 1498—he did not work on the painting continuously. This beginning date is not certain, as “the archives of the convent have been destroyed and our meagre documents date from 1497 when the painting was nearly finished.”

The Last Supper specifically portrays the reaction given by each apostle when Jesus said one of them would betray him. All twelve apostles have different reactions to the news, with various degrees of anger and shock. The apostles are identified from a manuscript (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci p. 232) with their names found in the 19th century. (Before this, only Judas, Peter, John and Jesus were positively identified.) From left to right, according to the apostles heads:

  • Bartholomew, James, son of Alphaeus and Andrew form a group of three, all are surprised.
  • Judas Iscariot, Peter and John form another group of three. Judas is wearing green and blue and is in shadow, looking rather withdrawn and taken aback by the sudden revelation of his plan. He is clutching a small bag, perhaps signifying the silver given to him as payment to betray Jesus, or perhaps a reference to his role within the 12 disciples as treasurer.[5] He is also tipping over the salt shaker. This may be related to the near-Eastern expression to “betray the salt” meaning to betray one’s Master. He is the only person to have his elbow on the table and his head is also horizontally the lowest of anyone in the painting. Peter looks angry and is holding a knife pointed away from Christ, perhaps foreshadowing his violent reaction in Gethsemane during Jesus’ arrest. The youngest apostle, John, appears to swoon.
  • Jesus.
  • Apostle Thomas, James the Greater and Philip are the next group of three. Thomas is clearly upset; James the Greater looks stunned, with his arms in the air. Meanwhile, Philip appears to be requesting some explanation.
  • Matthew, Jude Thaddeus and Simon the Zealot are the final group of three. Both Jude Thaddeus and Matthew are turned toward Simon, perhaps to find out if he has any answer to their initial questions.

In common with other depictions of The Last Supper from this period, Leonardo seats the diners on one side of the table, so that none of them have their backs to the viewer. Most previous depictions excluded Judas by placing him alone on the opposite side of the table from the other eleven disciples and Jesus or placing halos around all the disciples except Judas. Leonardo instead has Judas lean back into shadow. Jesus is predicting that his betrayer will take the bread at the same time he does to Saints Thomas and James to his left, who react in horror as Jesus points with his left hand to a piece of bread before them. Distracted by the conversation between John and Peter, Judas reaches for a different piece of bread not noticing Jesus too stretching out with his right hand towards it. (Matthew 26: 23). The angles and lighting draw attention to Jesus, whose head is located at the vanishing point for all perspective lines.

The painting contains several references to the number 3, which represents the Christian belief in the Holy Trinity. The Apostles are seated in groupings of three; there are three windows behind Jesus; and the shape of Jesus’ figure resembles a triangle. There may have been other references that have since been lost as the painting deteriorated.

The School of Athens from Raphael

The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1510 and 1511 as a part of Raphael’s commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens the second painting to be finished there, after La Disputa, on the opposite wall. The picture has long been seen as “Raphael’s masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the High Renaissance.”

The “School of Athens” is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza (those on either side centrally interrupted by windows) that depict distinct branches of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: “Seek Knowledge of Causes”, “Divine Inspiration”, “Knowledge of Things Divine” (Disputa), “To Each What Is Due”. Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, and Law. The traditional title is not Raphael’s, and the subject of the “School” is actually “Philosophy”, or at least ancient Greek philosophy, and its overhead tondo-label, “Causarum Cognitio” tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle’s emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Physics Book II. Indeed, Aristotle appears to be the central figure in the scene below. However all the philosophers depicted sought to understand through knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, and hardly a third were Athenians. The architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato and Aristotle at its centre might be alluding to Pythagoras’ circumpunct.

Commentators have suggested that nearly every great Greek philosopher can be found within the painting, but determining which are depicted is difficult, since Raphael made no designations outside possible likenesses, and no contemporary documents explain the painting. Compounding the problem, Raphael had to invent a system of iconography to allude to various figures for whom there were no traditional visual types. For example, while the Socrates figure is immediately recognizable from Classical busts, the alleged Epicurus is far removed from the standard type for that philosopher. Aside from the identities of the figures depicted, many aspects of the fresco have been variously interpreted, but few such interpretations are generally accepted among scholars. The popular idea that the rhetorical gestures of Plato and Aristotle are kinds of pointing (to the heavens, and down to earth) is a likely reading. However Plato’s Timaeus – which is the book Raphael places in his hand – was a sophisticated treatment of space, time and change, including the Earth, which guided mathematical sciences for over a millennium. Aristotle, with his four elements theory, held that all change on Earth was owing to the motions of the heavens. In the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science. It is not established how much the young Raphael knew of ancient philosophy, what guidance he might have had from people such as Bramante, or whether a detailed program was dictated by his sponsor, Pope Julius II. Nevertheless the fresco was even recently interpreted as an exhortation to philosophy and, in a deeper way, as a visual representation of the role of Love in elevating people toward upper knowledge, largely in debt with the contemporary theories of Marsilio Ficino and other neo-platonic thinkers linked to Raphael. Finally, according to Vasari, the scene includes Raphael himself, the Duke of Mantua, Zoroaster and some Evangelists.

However, as Heinrich Wölfflin observed, “it is quite wrong to attempt interpretations of the ‘School of Athens’ as an esoteric treatise … The all-important thing was the artistic motive which expressed a physical or spiritual state, and the name of the person was a matter of indifference” in Raphael’s time. What is evident is Raphael’s artistry in orchestrating a beautiful space, continuous with that of viewers in the Stanza, in which a great variety of human figures, each one expressing “mental states by physical actions”, interact, and are grouped in a “polyphony” unlike anything in earlier art, in the ongoing dialogue of Philosophy.

Sistine Chapel ceiling from Michelangelo

The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, at the commission of Pope Julius II, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art. The ceiling is that of the large Papal Chapel built within the Vatican between 1477 and 1480 by Pope Sixtus IV after whom it is named. The chapel is the location for Papal Conclaves and many important services.

The ceiling’s various painted elements form part of a larger scheme of decoration within the Chapel, which includes the large fresco The Last Judgment on the sanctuary wall, also by Michelangelo, wall paintings by several leading painters of the late 15th century including Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Pietro Perugino, and a set of large tapestries by Raphael, the whole illustrating much of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

Central to the ceiling decoration are nine scenes from the Book of Genesis of which the Creation of Adam is the best known, having an iconic standing equalled only by Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, the hands of God and Adam being reproduced in countless imitations. The complex design includes several sets of individual figures, both clothed and naked, which allowed Michelangelo to fully demonstrate his skill in creating a huge variety of poses for the human figure, and have provided an enormously influential pattern book of models for other artists ever since.

Pope Julius II was a “warrior pope” who in his papacy undertook an aggressive campaign for political control, to unite and empower Italy under the leadership of the Church. He invested in symbolism to display his temporal power such as his procession, in the Classical manner, through a triumphal arch in a chariot after one of his many military victories. It was Julius who began the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in 1506, as the most potent symbol of the source of papal power.

In the same year, 1506, Julius II conceived a program to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The walls of the chapel had been decorated twenty years earlier. The lowest of three levels is painted to resemble draped hangings, and was (and sometimes still is) hung on special occasions with the set of tapestries designed by Raphael. The middle level contains a complex scheme of frescoes illustrating the Life of Christ on the right side and the Life of Moses on the left side. It was carried out by some of the most renowned Renaissance painters: Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Signorelli and Cosimo Rosselli. The upper level of the walls contains the windows, between which are painted pairs of illusionistic niches with representations of the first thirty-two popes. A draft by Matteo d’Amelia indicates that the ceiling was painted blue like that of the Arena Chapel and decorated with gold stars, possibly representing the zodiacal constellations. It is probable that because the chapel was the site of regular meetings and Masses of an elite body of officials known as the Papal Chapel who would observe the decorations and interpret their theological and temporal significance, it was Pope Julius’ intention and expectation that the iconography of the ceiling was to be read with many layers of meaning.

Michelangelo, who was not primarily a painter but a sculptor, was reluctant to take on the work. Also, he was occupied with a very large sculptural commission for the Pope’s own tomb. The Pope was adamant, leaving Michelangelo no choice but to accept. But a war with the French broke out, diverting the attention of the Pope, and Michelangelo fled from Rome to continue sculpting. The tomb sculptures, however, were never to be finished because in 1508 the Pope returned to Rome victorious and summoned Michelangelo to begin work on the ceiling. The contract was signed on 10 May 1508.

The scheme proposed by the pope was for twelve large figures of the Apostles to occupy the pendentives. However Michelangelo negotiated for a grander, much more complex scheme and was finally permitted, in his own words, “to do as I liked”. His scheme for the ceiling eventually comprised some three hundred figures and took four years to execute, being completed in 1512. It is unknown and is the subject of much speculation among art historians as to whether Michelangelo was really able to “do as he liked”. It has been suggested that Egidio da Viterbo was a consultant for the Theology. Many writers consider that Michelangelo had the intellect, the Biblical knowledge and the powers of invention to have devised the scheme himself. This is supported by Condivi’s statement that Michelangelo read and reread the Old Testament while he was painting the ceiling, drawing his inspiration from the words of the scripture, rather than from the established traditions of sacral art. There was a total of 343 figures painted on the ceiling.

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Categories: Arts, Humanities
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