2008. urtean Euskarazko Wikipediak Argia saria jaso zuen eta Argia aldizkariak honakoa esan zuen saria arrazoitzerako orduan: “Internet mailan munduan sortu den ekintzarik garrantzitsuenetako batean parte hartuz, euskara eta Euskal Herria sendotu ditu Interneten eta aldi berean munduan puntakoa den jarduera batekiko sinergiak eragin ditu euskaraz. Ehunka herritar ari dira parte hartzen proiektuan; seguru gehiago ugarituko direla ondoko hilabeteetan. Horregatik, ez da harritzekoa erabiltzaileen kopurua ere asko handitu izana.”
Hau dela eta, Euskerazko Wikipediak burututako lanarekin bat egin nahi dugu Christmas Uhartearen inguruko artikulu bat idatziz. Artikulua garatzerako orduan Erderazko Wikipedian eta Ingeleseko Wikipedian aurki ditzakegun Christmas uhartearen inguruko artkuluak hartuko ditugu erreferentzia gisa. Hala ere, zenbait informazio iturri aurkitu ditugu artikulua ahal bezain ondoen osatu ahal izateko: Christmas Island Tourism Association webgune ofiziala, AEBetako Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -ren webgunean Christmas uhartearen inguruan agertzen den informazioa, Australiako gobernuaren webgune ofizialaren barruan metereologiari dagokion atala, etab. Horien artean, Amnesty International GKEaren webgunean Christmas uhartearen inguruko artkulu oso interesgarria topatu dugu: Detention on Christmas Island (2009) izenekoa.
Lehenik eta behin Amnesty International (AI) nazioarteko Gobernuz Kanpoko Erakundea da, Londresen 1961ean sortutakoa. Bere helburua “giza eskubideen zapalketa saihesteko eta desagerrarazteko ekintzak egitea, gai horren inguruko ikerketa ahalbidetzea eta eskubideak urratuta dituztenentzat justizia eskatzea” da. Gaur egun, 2,8 milioi kidek osatzen dute eta 150 herrialde baino gehiagotan egiten du lan. 1977an, Amnesty International-ek Bakearen Nobel Saria irabazi zuen, eta urte bat beranduago, Giza Eskubideen Nazio Batuen Saria eman zioten. Hortaz, bere historian zehar eta gaur egun arte giza eskubideen alde borrokatu duen erakundea izanik, Amnesty International-en webgune ofiziala informazio iturri fidagarri moduan hartu dezakegu.
Artikulu honek hiru atal ditu:
- The history of Christmas Island.
- Christmas Island today.
- Christmas Island detainees are denied their rights.
Irakurri dezakegunaren arabera, 2001ean Australiako gobernuak zenbait irla Australiako “migrazio eremutik” kanpo utzi zituen, horien artean Christmas uhartea. Ondorioz, irlara babes eske heltzen ziren pertsonak hartzea Australiako gobernuaren betebeharretatik kanpo geratu zen, eta errefuxiatuak beste herrialde batzuetara eramateko ahalmena ematen zion. 2006an, etorkinentzako zentru bat eraiki zuten Christmas uhartean, 800 lagunentzako lekua duena.
Artikulu honen bitartez, AI-k zentru honen segurtasun maila handia salatzen du, eta kartzela baten antza duela esaten du: “Amnesty International and nine other organisations expressed concern about the high security, prison-like character of the Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre. The organisations point out that Christmas Island is an extremely harsh and stark environment to detain people seeking asylum. “ Horrez gain, AI-ren arabera, Christmas uharteko etorkinen eskubideak behin eta berriro urratuak izaten dira; izan ere, egoera honetan dauden etorkinak ez dute Australiako beste leku batzuetan dituzten osasun zerbitzu edo zerbitzu legalak, eta modu diskriminatzaile batean tratatzen dituzte itsasontziz heldutako errefuxiatuak.
Gure artikulurako informazio oso baliagarria eskeintzen digu; izan ere, Christmas uharteak giza eskubideei dagokionez, gaur egun bizi duen egoeraren berri ematen digu. Inmigrazioa Christmas uhartean berebiziko garrantzia duenez gero, ekarpen garrantzitsua suposatzen du artikulu honek gure lanerako.
ERABILITAKO INFORMAZIO ITURRIAK:
- Amnesty International Australia: Detention on Christmas Island (2009): http://www.amnesty.org.au/refugees/comments/20442/ (2012.02.26an jasoa)
- Argia Sariak: Sarien argudioak (2008): http://www.argia.com/sariak/urtez-urte.php (2012.02.26an jasoa)
- Amnistía Internacional: Nuestros Objetivos: http://www.es.amnesty.org/quienes-somos/nuestros-objetivos/ (2012.02.26an jasoa)
The sources selected when describing the movie Spring Subway, have been all written by people who know about the subject of Chinese cinema. Yingjin Zhang, who wrote the book Chinese national cinema, is an Associate Professor of Chinese, Comparative Literature, and Film Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, so not only is he Chinese, but knows about literature and film studies, being his point of view of much interest when we talk about the new genres arousing in Chinese cinema.
He received his M.A. from the University of Iowa in 1987 and Ph.D. in comparative literature from Stanford University in 1992. Before joining the UC San Diego faculty in 2001, he taught at Indiana University in Bloomington, where he was honored with an Outstanding Junior Faculty Award in 1996. He served as President of the American Association of Chinese Comparative Literature in 1993-94 and received, among others, a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the University of Michigan in 1995-96, a Summer Faculty Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities in 1999, a Pacific Cultural Foundation Research Grant (Taipei) in 2000, a Fulbright China Research Fellowship in 2003-04, and a UC Humanities Research Institute Fellowship (Irvine) in 2005. He also taught at the University of Chicago, Nanjing University (China), and Shanghai Jiaotong U (China) as a visiting professor.
As our Wikipedia article is going to be about a Chinese movie, we consider it important to have people who are deeply implied in the concept of Chinese cinema, which is the case of all the authors cited above.
- Spring Subway. (2011, April 19). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:26, February 28, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spring_Subway&oldid=424830455
- Zhang, Y. Chinese national cinema. Routledge, 2004. Retrieved from http://books.google.es/books?id=6WzJq0hForAC
- University of San Diego. Retrieved the 2012.03.05 from http://literature.ucsd.edu/people/faculty/yzhang.html
Dora Sales Salvador eta Itamar Even-Zoharren arteko elkarrizketari buruzkoa da iruzkin hau. Teoria literarioaz eta kulturalaz jarduten dira, besteak beste, Even-Zoharren “Polisistemen teoria” eta teoria horren barnean itzulpengintzak hartzen duen garrantzia hartzen dute hizpide. Read more…
Jean Baudrillard was a French philosopher and sociologist, a cultural critic and theorist of postmodernity, who, unfortunetly, died in 2007. He left a huge work composed by many books, articles and essays, and he is common known, among other things, for analyzing critically Marx‘s ideas.
Marx believed that in economics and its dialectical procedure he found fundamental agency, all he found was what haunts it – Baudrillard, 1976
Because of the interest in this philosopher who had wrote about marxism during the Cold War period and the desire to improve Wikipedia in Basque, I have retrieved some sources for the article. The source I will be commenting is an article of the professor of sociology Gerry Coutler based on Baudrillard’s work and his analysis of Marxim. Read more…
During the Cold War John F. Kennedy said “We choose to go to the moon in this decade, not because it is easy, but because it is hard. The competition between the two superpowers was already boiling, the supremacy and reputation were at stake. Arriving to the moon was the hugest challenge that technology had to face in that moment. National budget and all effort was focused on this goal, defeating the enemy was as important as obtaining the recognition as hegemonic power. This scientific battle lasted from 1957 to 1975 and it involved a great economical effort and also human sacrifice. In fact, it is considered the greatest technological investment ever made after the Second World War.
Last year Konstantin Bogdanov published ,in the Russian news agency RIA Novosti, an article about the race of manned trips. The article is an interesting source and above all a truthful report supported by many data about the space race. One of his areas of investigation covers all events related to the space race. He explains the significant progress of spatial technology and he comes to the conclusion that USSR and USA drawed in this intense space race. In order to complete this information, there is an illustrated report about the arrival to the moon that El Mundo newspaper disclosed in its digital edition.
This report shows many features about this historic event such as the trip of Neil Amstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins, the mission, the biography of the twelve astronauts that landed on the moon and what the consequences of this success produced. In addition, the report in order to viewers understand and figure the event out better encloses a documentary with real images of the arrival on our satellite.
Besides, it is important to manage information about Apollo program with which Americans arrived to the moon. That is the reason why the work includes this information retrieved from NASA, the greatest spatial authority in the world. From this American point of view, it is possible to explain how important the success was for US. As Neil Amstrong said, this giant step for the mankind. Yes, it actually was the victory of American nation and its people. But behind every success, there are loads of failures and the report about Apollo program shows many flops, for example Apolo 1 explosion and the death of the astronauts.
To sum up, this wikipedia article about the space race in basque expects to collect different points of view. Firstly, the article of Bodganov provides the Soviet view about the issue. Then, it is important to use information done by any other neutral country like Spain, Therefore, the report of El Mundo is a quite useful source. Finally, NASA is going to explain the events from American point of view. In this way, the project is going to be focused on many perspectives instead of sticking to unique point of view.
- El Mundo digital: 2009 July, 40 años en la Luna, 2009 retrieved 28/2/2012. www.elmundo.es/especiales/2009/07/ciencia/llegada_hombre_lun…
- NASA: Apollo program, humankind’s first step on the lunar surface, retrieved 27/2/02 http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.html
The reference I have chosen for doing our Wikipedia article about Nora Roberts is her Official Page (http://www.noraroberts.com/index.php ) which is absolutely useful and totally reliable because is Nora Roberts herself who writes about her life, her books and so on. In the webpage we can find a section called About Nora where links are provided for the persons and fans who are interested in. Those links are very useful, as I have said, for our Wikipedia article.
- Fun Facts
- From Nora
- Frequently Asked Questions
Between all the references in Google Books linked to the writer Nora Roberts we can find a book written by Mary Ellen Snodgrass that is absolutely useful for our Wikipedia article since it analyses Nora Roberts’ style and the symbolism of her writing. Snodgrass provides a plot of summaries of Nora Roberts’ work and tells us about the striking features of her two hundred publications, including regular reissues and editions. This is the main reason for considering this reference critical for a Wikipedia article about the writer. Snodgrass also tells us about the writer’s life, her work during three decades (the 80s, 90s and 21st century) and the style in which she describes the genre in her books. Moreover, she provides a complete analysis of the relation of the writer with the mass media and the Internet from the page 105 to the page 128 and this is interesting to know her web communication tools and the way she manages information. Apart from this, the book provides different references at the end of its chapter so that the information there is reliable and it is very actual because it was written in 2010. Read more…